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There are many times when a light engine rebuild is possible. If cylinder taper (wear toward the top of the piston ring travel and TDC) is negligible and the cylinder is still "round" in bore shape, honing can restore the cylinder(s) to get a good piston ring seal on new rings. This is the traditional "ring and valve job" overhaul procedure, where the piston(s) are reusable and the rings will be renewed after cleaning the ring grooves carefully with the correct tool. This is a precisely honed motorcycle cylinder from the magazine's Honda XR650R. L.A. Sleeve has achieved this true, perfect cross-hatch with the use of a power cylinder hone. Machine shops strive for this type of cross-hatch pattern. For more details, see the magazine's how-to HD video series on the top end rebuild of the XR650R engine. Whether to "hone" or "glaze bust" is a matter of wear and how true the cylinder measures. A three- or four-stone cylinder hone is capable of truing the bore and also creating a "cross-hatch" pattern desirable for good ring seating and seal. The cross-hatch is actually done precisely on a boring/honing machine when an engine or cylinder barrel gets reconditioned at a machine shop. When performed at the machine shop environment, actual angle or "degrees" of the cross-hatch intersect lines achieve a precise angle. This is controlled by the speed of the hone going up and down in the cylinder. At left is a flex hone or "glaze buster" with silicone balls mounted on stiff wire strands. Note that the hone must match the bore diameter of the cylinder being serviced. At center is a three-stone hone, known for better control of cylinder "round" and best for truing a cylinder. The stone package at right is "240 Grit", there are other grits for different honing finishes and speeds. If you choose to hone your cylinder and not sublet it to a machine shop, there are two distinct procedures: 1) honing with a stone hone and 2) breaking the glaze with a silicone ball glaze buster or "flex hone". Again, for precisely truing, the stone hone will be best. The silicone flex hone is a brush-like approach with pressure at each wire/ball. The glaze buster will follow the contour of a cylinder, and unless round and true, the result will be a glaze bust with cross-hatch that mimics the bore's shape. So, the best start is to measure the bore accurately for taper, out-of-round and size. If you can hone without making the cylinder oversized, the new rings and piston-to-wall gap will be within tolerance. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for bore size, piston-to-wall clearance and the piston ring end gaps. Some like the flex hone for its ease of operation and relatively failsafe results. The stone hone, by contrast, must be used with caution and safely. There is the chance of breaking the stones or damaging the bore if you do not use the stone hone properly. See the forum on "General Repairs and Technical Tips" for details on the actual use of cylinder hones... Moses
There are many times when a pinpoint reading of brake hydraulic pressure is useful. Brake safety and vehicle handling require the right hydraulic force at each wheel of the vehicle—at the right time! Knowing precisely how much apply pressure is available at the master cylinder, combination valve, ABS system, wheel cylinders or disc brake calipers can help troubleshoot weak brakes, grabby brakes, brake pull, erratic handling under hard braking, hazardous wheel lock-up and more. Whether you tackle your own vehicle service or operate a 4x4, OHV or motorcycle shop that depends on customer satisfaction, one valuable tool for brake system diagnostics is a hydraulic pressure tester. Maybe you're installing a retrofit rear disc brake upgrade like some of our forum members. Or you put oversized tires on your 4x4 and now a major braking issue has developed...If you take brake work seriously or find yourself in need of pinpoint information on a brake system's performance, consider a hydraulic brake and ABS diagnostic tool kit like this: This tool kit can pay for itself quickly in pinpoint hydraulic brake system diagnosis. Click on images to enlarge. (If you cannot see the pictures, join the forums for free, and get full member access!) I find this tool valuable. You can separate hydraulic problems from mechanical issues, or ABS issues from defects in rotors, brake drums and friction materials. With the assortment of fittings, the kit can work on most domestic and import vehicles. If you're having trouble separating brake performance issues, don't waste time and money on parts replacing that fails to solve problems...Take the guesswork out of brake work. Know how the hydraulic system performs before you leave the shop or driveway—not by trial and error. Invest in the right diagnostic tools! Moses
So you bought a vintage Willys or Kaiser Jeep or an AMC/Jeep CJ with Model 20 rear axle? You're restoring any older vehicle with a rear axle that has tapered hubs and keyed axle shafts? Splines rusted, and you can't get your later 4x4 front axle shaft loose from the unit bearing/hub? There's a right way to do this and the wrong way...I just finished an HD video on the use of an OTC 7394 Hub puller and the OTC 6574-1 adapter plate. If you're staring at a wheel hub and axle shaft that needs force to separate, check out the 11-minute video on how to do this properly: http://www.4wdmechanix.com/HD-Video-Tool-How-to-Using-the-OTC-7394-Hub-Puller.html. Click on photos to enlarge... Since the late 'sixties, I've been using this kind of tool setup on early Jeep tapered and keyed axle shafts (later on the AMC Model 20 CJ rear axles), plus vintage Ford, Chrysler, Studebaker, early I-H Scout and other vehicles—this is a safer way to remove and preserve these hubs and axle shafts! Moses