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I am installing a front D44 front from a mid-70s Waggy in my 85 CJ-7. I have found some good write-ups on shortening the drivers side of the 44 to keep overall width the same. My current issue is that I want to convert the unit from the 6x5.5 Waggy pattern to the 5x5.5 CJ pattern. I have actually sourced a set of Ford outers, but am reading some things which concern me concerning later Waggy D44s maybe not being compatible because of some dimensional changes to the bearing. AS I am not sure of the year of the D44 I am now considering having a machine shop redrill some of the components on the Wagoneer outers to 5x5.5. Any opinions on the best way to achieve what I am trying to do? Thanks, hobbs
The axle shaft tapers have "teeth" that cut into the smooth surface of a new rear wheel hub casting. There is a minimum beginning axle shaft nut torque on Jeep CJs of 250 ft-lbs. For a new hub, this is followed by tightening the axle shaft nut further until you achieve the factory-specified stick-out length of the axle shaft threads (beyond the outer edge of the wheel hub). Note: I've attached the factory procedure in a PDF for those interested in the Model 20 AMC Jeep CJ axle shaft hub installation: AMC Model 20 Axle Hub Installation.pdf See your factory service manual, it will describe this procedure for the Model 15. For the Jeep CJs, I also go into this installation in-depth within my 1972-86 Jeep CJ Rebuilder's Manual (Bentley Publishers). Note the way you take this thread stick-out measurement... The amount of torque required on the hub nut can include the use of a 3/4" square drive impact socket and a long handle added to a 3/4" drive breaker bar. I have used the handle from a hydraulic floor jack (very carefully!) to gain enough leverage with some installations. Other installs require far less force than this. It's always about the correct thread stick-out measurement after tightening the nut. Those attempting to achieve the correct thread stick-out length with an impact gun, even a very strong one, may be surprised to find that the impact force is not sufficient to get the hub properly drawn onto the serrated axle shaft taper. All of this said, the AMC factory recommendation is a new hub casting if/when the hub shows any kind of damage. If you notice, brake work does not require hub removal, and the hub should, ideally, not be removed unless the axle shaft outer bearing requires replacement. Many do get away with hub reuse if there is no damage to the hub taper or axle shaft "teeth". If the hub has spun on the axle shaft, there is damage—the hub must be replaced. The hub and axle shaft positioning should be marked before the hub is removed. If you cannot or do not want to install a new hub, and the old hub appears okay, align the hub at its original position on the axle shaft. Tighten the axle shaft nut to the initial torque. I take this a step further and use the thread stick-out method to assure a safe installation. Once you have installed a hub to an AMC axle shaft in this manner, you will understand why Jeep owners who do not practice this method wind up with the hub spinning on the axle shaft's tapered end or, in the worst case scenario, the wheel hub and wheel/tire assembly can come loose! There are aftermarket "one-piece" replacement axle shafts available for the Jeep CJ 5x5.5" bolt circle hubs. These one-piece shafts have a more conventional outer flange for the wheel studs and mounting the brake drum and wheel/tire assembly. There are several suppliers for these Jeep CJ axle shafts. However, like you share, your Eagle wheel bolt circle is smaller than a CJ Jeep pattern, and the axle shaft lengths are likely different between the CJ and your Eagle. (Inner axle shaft splines may differ, too.) As a footnote, the key and keyway on the AMC axle shaft are not intended for withstanding the driving torque at the axle shaft. This key is mainly to facilitate the installation of the axle shaft nut in the manner I've just described. (It may provide a very marginal safety factor, but looking at it, you can see that the size of this key cannot withstand axle torque or loads.) With a new hub, you are actually "cutting" teeth/splines into the smooth hub casting taper as you tighten the axle nut securely. By securely, the only safe and trusted method is thread stick-out length. Any attempt to use a torque figure (other than the starting torque of 250 ft-lbs for the CJ Jeep Model 20 axle shaft nuts) is futile. Actual torque setting can vary from not much past the 250 ft-lbs minimum to the long handle leverage I mention. Related information: Anyone remember the vintage Volkswagen air-cooled era rear axle shaft nuts and the use of a long leverage bar for tightening? AMC is not alone here. And there are the tapered axle shafts on vintage Jeep, Ford, Studebaker, I-H and Chrysler cars and trucks that require a hub puller to remove the wheel hub and brake drum. If you need that kind of puller for an AMC axle, get pointers from my OTC Hub Tool video, click here. When Jeep owners do not follow this hub tightening procedure on the Model 20 axle in a CJ, and especially if they run oversized tires, the hub will spin lose. This can cause severe parts damage or even the loss of the hub/wheel assembly. Check your shop manual for the AMC AWD Eagle. I'm curious what the thread stick-out measurement is for the Model 15... Moses
I have an 82 cj with a dana 30 low pinion with 2:73 gears. I want to put 4:10 gears in it. Can I use a carrier and ring and pinion from a TJ wrangler or 2000-2001 XJ Cherokee mentioned in the dana 30 rebuild how to. I'm sure my pinion is long. I'm not sure if they are in the models mentioned above. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks, Mike
Disc brake conversions are popular, and I cover that topic in my Jeep CJ Rebuilder's Manuals (1946-71 and 1972-86 Editions, Bentley Publishers). Whether the CJ has a four-drum system or a disc front/drum rear system, the master cylinder must be considered during a disc brake conversion. There are two master cylinder concerns when converting to disc brakes: 1) the piston bore size and fluid volume per stroke of the pedal and 2) any "residual valves" that might have been used for the drum brakes. For disc brakes to work, the master cylinder must have enough fluid displacement to apply the calipers and pads. Disc calipers use more brake fluid per pedal stroke than properly adjusted drum brakes. If the Jeep is a vintage CJ 4x4 with a single master cylinder and drum brakes, especially the 9-inch diameter drum system, the stock master cylinder will be inadequate for modern disc brake calipers. Drum or disc brakes, I'd want to get rid of the single master cylinder for safety sake, regardless! In converting to disc brakes, the best choice here should be a modern four-wheel disc brake type dual master cylinder retrofit. A retrofit can even be done using the original, through-the-floor brake pedal, as I illustrate in the 1946-71 Jeep CJ Rebuilder's Manual (Bentley Publishers). I fabricated a safe, sturdy mount for a later dual master cylinder—mounted beneath the floorboard like the stock master cylinder and actuated by the stock brake pedal. Sometimes, a disc/drum master cylinder will have adequate fluid displacement on the rear drum circuit to operate retrofit disc rear brakes. Again, this depends on the master cylinder's bore size and stroke per pedal application. The rear fluid reservoir is often smaller, so keep fluid at the recommended full level. On 1972-up Jeep CJs with four-wheel drum or disc front/drum rear brakes, you may be able to use the stock master cylinder with a disc brake conversion. Be aware, though, that some master cylinders will require removal of the residual valve(s) from the master cylinder ports. The "residual valve" is important on many drum brake systems. To keep the wheel cylinder cup lips expanded, which prevents fluid seepage from the wheel cylinder with the brakes released, a valve is built into the hydraulic system to hold "residual pressure" in the wheel cylinders when the brakes are released. Early single master cylinders and many four-wheel drum or disc/drum dual master cylinders have built-in "check" or "residual" valves. This residual pressure is below the tension of the brake shoe return springs. Residual pressure is simply to keep the wheel cylinders from drawing air or leaking fluid when the brakes are released. This pressure is typically around 12 PSI, well below brake shoe return spring tension. By design, disc brake calipers do not require residual pressure. The pads release pressure with the pedal release. There is adequate fluid available in the circuit to apply the brakes without lag or hesitation. Some disc brake hydraulic systems, do have very slight residual pressure to keep the pads close to the rotors at all times and improve brake response time during pedal application. This pressure would be around 2 PSI and not enough to cause premature pad wear, fade or overheated rotors. Note: If you're using a four-wheel drum or disc/drum CJ master cylinder, check the fluid line ports for a residual valve. Typically, this valve is simply a rubber plunger and balance spring at the back side of the tubing flare nut seat. With the brake lines removed from the master cylinder, you can see the rubber plunger through the passageway at the center of the tubing flare nut seat. This seat is removable for service and seat replacement. If you are curious how to safely remove the seat, I'd be happy to detail—ask here at the forum! Caution: When retrofitting from drum to disc brakes, you need to remove the drum brake residual valve(s). Earlier Jeep dual master cylinders for four-wheel drum brakes have residual valves at both the front and rear fluid line ports. OEM disc/drum brake systems can have a residual valve on the rear brake circuit. If the residual valve for drum brakes is left in place, the disc brake pads will drag on the rotors with the brake pedal released. This can cause excessive pad wear, brake fade and even wheel lockup. One disc brake conversion example is our fellow forum member "LastCJ7". He has a 1986 CJ-7 Jeep (disc front/drum rear factory brakes) and is converting to rear disc brakes. He's trying the CJ-7 dual master cylinder before considering a late Jeep TJ Wrangler Rubicon (four-wheel disc from the factory) master cylinder...LastCJ7 needs to make sure there is no residual valve holding pressure in the rear brake system with the brake pedal released. On later disc/drum master cylinders, there may not be a residual valve in the rear brake circuit. Many manufacturers have changed over to stiffer wheel cylinder cup expander springs with sturdier cup expanders. This measure keeps the rubber cups expanded with the brakes released and serves the same purpose as older residual valve systems. When converting to disc brakes, explore whether your original dual master cylinder uses a residual valve or valves. Vintage, single master cylinders have a check valve within the master cylinder to hold residual pressure in the system—one more reason why a single master cylinder is not a candidate for a disc brake conversion! Make sure the master cylinder's fluid displacement (per pedal stroke) will meet disc brake caliper requirements. If in doubt, retrofit a combination valve and master cylinder from a similar chassis—like retrofitting a Jeep TJ Wrangler Rubicon master cylinder and combination valve to a CJ-7 chassis. Summing up, make sure the brake hydraulic system is compatible with the disc brake calipers and rotors. Both the CJ-7 and TJ Rubicon are on a 94" wheelbase, each has beam axles and an inline six-cylinder engine, their curb weight is a close match, so they should have similar braking needs and characteristics...Jeep TJ Wrangler Rubicon brake components would be a good template for the CJ-7 wheelbase and four-wheel disc brakes. Moses