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Moses Ludel

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Posts posted by Moses Ludel

  1. Hi, 54bobby...There would be no way to move the 2.5L CPS closer to the flexplate or flywheel.  However, if the goal is to modify the spark timing or possible make it more accurate, the CPS's winged flange holes could be elongated with a file or burr grinding bit to move the sensor slightly in either direction on the bellhousing/converter housing.  The sensor would still mount on the same arc as the original position.

     Fuel-Spark-218-21.jpg Fuel-Spark-238-21.jpg

    At left is the 2.5L Jeep TBI Crankshaft Position Sensor (CPS).  Shifting the sensor slightly in the left or right direction would change the base spark timing and the entire spark curve.  This would "trick" the computer into thinking the modified CPS sensor pickup position was #1 piston at TDC or top dead center.  (Normally, the CPS indexes the TDC or #1 cylinder timing position, which is the same as "0" degrees at the crankshaft.  The ECU or computer receives this TDC signal for #1 piston.  All spark timing is adjusted by the computer/ECU.  


    The ignition distributor is in a fixed position.  Modifying or trying to change the distributor base location is futile.  Spark timing works from the CPS and the computer.  The 2.5L TBI engine requires that the distributor housing lines up in this position with the rotor pointed correctly toward #1 spark wire position in the distributor cap;  #1 piston is at TDC of its compression stroke when indexing the rotor and cap.

    Moving the center point of the CPS pickup with relationship to the flywheel/flexplate and crankshaft would either advance or retard the overall spark timing curve.  The bell housing/converter housing threads are in a fixed position and need to remain that way.  Do not attempt to modify the housing threads.

    There should be no reason to move the sensor "closer" to the flexplate or flywheel.  This is a hall-effect, magnet based pickup method.  The flexplate or flywheel generates a signal pulse at the pickup tip.  The gap between these two points has some flexibility;  the factory position and gap for the sensor is acceptable for normal purposes. 

    The one exception is when the flywheel or flexplate surface gets dirty with a combination of dirt and engine oil from a weeping rear main seal or oil pan lip.  Before modifying anything, I would clean the flywheel/flexplate face and the sensor tip of the CPS.  If difficult to access the flexplate/flywheel, consider removing the CPS and cleaning the flywheel or flexplate surface through the sensor pickup hole.  If there is a major oil leak (oil pan or main seal), fix it.

    As for the MAT sensor, this is actually called the AIT (Air Intake Temperature) sensor by Mopar.  In the Mopar catalog, instead of including this sensor with all the other sensors and switches, the part number is buried at the intake manifold listing for 2.5L TBI engine parts (1987-90 Jeep XJ Cherokee/Comanche).  The OEM Mopar part number is:  33002382 SENSOR, Intake Air Temperature.  When I looked this up online, more common Dodge engines also use the same sensor.  One example is the 1990-91 Dodge Monaco 3.0L V-6 gasoline engine and apparently the Renix 4.0L inline sixes.

    Make Model Year Body & Trim Engine & Transmission
    Dodge Monaco 1991 ES, LE 3.0L V6 - Gas
    Dodge Monaco 1990 ES, LE 3.0L V6 - Gas
    Jeep Cherokee 1990 Base, Laredo, Limited, Pioneer, Sport 2.5L L4 - Gas, 4.0L L6 - Gas
    Jeep Cherokee 1989 Base, Laredo, Limited, Pioneer, Sport 2.5L L4 - Gas, 4.0L L6 - Gas

    As for a source, I did a look-up and found some interesting possibilities:  

    1) AutoZone refers to this inexpensive CompCams part:https://www.autozone.com/electrical-and-lighting/temperature-sensor/comp-cams-air-temperature-sensor/891301_0  [You need to confirm the Ohms readout range and also the wiring connector type.  The CompCams catalog may have the specs on this sensor.  Look it up in the online catalog.]

    2) Standard offers the AX1 and AX40 air intake temperature sensors.  The AX49 is also a possibility but would require a connector change;  connectors are listed in the Standard online catalog, so any sensor connector can be found if it matches the number of wires.  This is not rocket science:  You need a sensor with the correct ohms readout, wire count, thread size and the right electrical connector.  If a new type connector is needed, you can splice into the existing wiring.

    3) The OEM part number turns up this Omix-ADA part at Summit Racing:  https://www.summitracing.com/parts/omx-1722101?rrec=true  [Same fit-up rules apply.  Confirm fit.]

    Do some homework here.  Standard, Omix-ADA, Crown and others offer tech support.  Ask about the ohms readout for these sensors and confirm their thread size and sensor length.  If the sensor matches the 2.5L TBI Jeep engine's thread size and the OEM sensor's ohms rating, you have found the holy grail of sensors or a solution for 1987-90 Jeep 2.5L TBI engines.  Post your findings here in a reply, and be a 2.5L TBI hero!

    Here is an article I provided some time ago to help 2.5L TBI owners with troubleshooting and tune-related issues:  https://www.4wdmechanix.com/Tuning-and-Troubleshooting-the-2.5L-Jeep-TBI-Four?r=1

    Trust this helps...



  2. Hi, Troy...This sounds like an ignition issue.  When you get the stall, check spark at #1 cylinder.  Remove the #1 spark lead and attach the plug end to an old spark plug.  Ground the spark plug against the cylinder head.  Have someone crank the engine and watch for a strong, steady spark.

    My first suspicion from this symptom is the ignition module.  Once hot, it faults.  Cools down, the engine will run.  Ignition modules are usually at fault if all else works properly.  You don't mention the year of your CJ-7 or which engine.  I could be more specific with that insight.  Regardless, both Prestolite and Motorcraft modules will demonstrate this behavior.

    The ignition coil or ignition pickup in the distributor can also fault when hot.  A coil can be easily tested with a volt-ohm meter, both hot and cold.  

    Let us know if this nails it.  We can dig deeper...


  3. JohnBell...The Tracker brings back memories, we took two mid-nineties 4x4 models over the Rubicon Trail, turning a normal 8-hour Jeep trip into a 46-hour marathon.  We made it, though, and Chevrolet/Geo got a national ad campaign from this stunt.


    The basic considerations here are whether your engine is getting spark and fuel.  If you have a timing light, attach it to #1 spark wire and crank the engine hot.  See if you get a flash from the timing light.  If not, carefully remove the #1 spark wire at the spark plug with the turned engine off.  Put an old spark plug on the plug end of the spark wire and ground the metal base of the spark plug to the engine.  Do not hold the plug.  Crank the engine and see whether the spark is strong or not.

    If you have plenty of spark and the distributor cap-and-rotor are okay, check the fuel supply.  While the engine is hot, do not crank the engine, just turn on the key and listen for the fuel pump running in the tank.  You should hear the pump, this may take two people. 

    If the pump runs, carefully disconnect the fuel line at the throttle body.  With a hose and safe metal can to catch gasoline, again turn on the key and see whether fuel is reaching the line at the throttle body.  If there a strong and steady stream of fuel as the pump runs, that's good.  If not, try replacing the inline fuel filter.  (You may want to replace the filter before disconnecting the line at the throttle body.  A fuel filter is cheap insurance in any case.)

    If you have the fuel line disconnected at the throttle body, again check fuel flow to the throttle body after changing the fuel filter.  If you suspect low pump pressure, you can measure the fuel pressure at the disconnected throttle body line with a pressure gauge.  The fuel pressure regulator is a common issue with the Geo.  Check the pump/line pressure and also check the fuel regulated pressure.  If the regulator is defective, there may not be enough fuel pressure for the engine to start readily. 

    Some other basic tests and comments:  With the air cleaner removed above the EFI throttle body, see whether there is a spray of fuel into the engine when you crank it hot.  (This takes two people.)  If there is no fuel or just a dribble, you may need a fuel filter (inexpensive) or regulator.  There could be an issue with the fuel return or the evaporative emissions system:  A simple issue is a defective or poorly sealing gas cap.  You could have an electronic issue with the ECU/ECM.  However, do not rush to changing the ECU/ECM.  The simplest fix is a new gas cap or fuel filter (not the sock/pickup filter at the base of the fuel pump in the tank, which is difficult to access).  Other possibilities would be the oxygen sensor and/or other parts that you can see in this convenient parts array at partsgeek.  Start simple before throwing money at parts;  the map or oxygen sensors could be an issue but try the less costly fixes first:


    Trust this helps...Let us know what works!


  4. DattMtn...All testing can be done without removing the cylinder head...Key off, coil wire pulled, rotate the crankshaft to bring #1 piston to TDC on the compression stroke.  Be certain that the rocker arms are in their correct positions;  the rocker tips should center over their valve stems.

    Check the valve rockers for play.  If you loosen the rocker bolts, the plungers in the lifters will extend to full height.  Wiggle the pushrod to confirm whether there is play or clearance; this is easier if you rotate the pushrod back and forth gently with your fingers, lifting up and down to confirm clearance. 

    Very slowly, rotate the rocker bolt down until the play just disappears.  Do not go further or you will be compressing the lifter plunger.  If you go too far, back off the bolt until the plunger has extended to full height again.  Each lifter has an internal spring to expand the plunger height until the cup is against the retainer clip (plunger fully extended).

    If you have a dial indicator, place it at the top of the rocker arm, directly over the pushrod.  Turn the rocker bolt down very slowly, watching the dial indicator to confirm how far down the lifter plunger drops.  (This is the lifter preload.)  Full preload takes place when the rocker bolt bottoms snugly.

    Do this at each cylinder with its piston at TDC, both valves closed and the camshaft lobes on their heels.  See whether each lifter has normal lifter preload.  If they each do, you should have no lifter noise.    

    If you do have noise, either the lifters are not getting enough oil, or they are bleeding down.  A new set of lifters is seldom defective and bleeding down.  Be sure that the new camshaft lobes look normal and not worn on their peaks. 

    To confirm that the lifters get oil, after you tighten each rocker, you should feel distinct pressure/resistance in the lifter.  (Apply heavy thumb pressure at the rocker's pushrod end.)  Resistance is normal and means that oil is in the plunger and the lifter check valve works properly.  Do not attempt to charge the lubrication system or fill lifters with oil when the pushrods and rocker arms are loose.

    If the lifter's plunger drops considerably when you apply pressure above the pushrod, the lifter likely has no oil in it or the lifter check valve is defective.  If oiling is okay and the cam lobes are okay, there could be an issue with the pushrod lengths.  You can measure lifter cup to rocker arm lengths with a CompCams pushrod gauge.  Allow for desired preload.  (Determine the correct length pushrod for zero clearance plus the desired preload.)  Compare this length to the current pushrod's length.  Do this with each lifter on the heel of its cam lobe.

    All this can be done with the cylinder head still in place.  See the discussion on the CompCams tool and setting proper clearance.  Read from the 12-23-2018 exchange downward... 


  5. Monty...By allowing the controlled cool-down, you had the best shot at stabilizing/restoring the grain structure and makeup of the metal.  The biggest mistake some do with metal like this is cooling it abruptly with cold water.  That freezes the heated metal in its expanded state while the grain structure is modified.  Even though your approach is short of re-heat treating, there would be some softening of the overall tensile in the heated area due to possible annealing or normalizing.

    Like you say, though, the road and trails are the test.  You'll most likely be fine and never have an issue here, especially with the reinforcement and boxing of the C-rails.  These frames soften and metal fatigue naturally from flexing over time, yet they continue to offer service...You did a sensible approach for heat bending.  

    Some argue that cold frame straightening is better.  However, once metal stretches from bending it's not granularly/structurally the same, anyway.  You avoided the risk of further metal stress from cold bending.

    I would pat yourself on the back for being thoughtful and doing your homework.  Boxing the frame rails with stitch welds is always a good practice.  This allows necessary frame flex.  You made the effort to do the right thing.  Now enjoy that Jeep and get some miles on it to test your handiwork!


  6. Looks straight now, Monty.  Only remaining question is frame tensile strength after heating.  These frames are fairly flexible in stock form, and you reinforced/boxed the forward rails nicely.  This likely nailed it...If this works, great!

    If you need to revisit the issue in the future, consider a shackle reversal approach.  This places the anchors at the front end of the leaf springs and shackles at the rear of the front springs.  The aftermarket kits or home approaches emulate the M38A1 military design.  My '55 CJ-5 (first year CJ-5) was fortunate enough to have an M38A1 military type frame from the factory.  This was the approach in '55 and some '56 CJs until your frame layout became standard for the CJ-5 and CJ-6 models.  Some early CJ-5/CJ-6 builds had a factory two-piece windshield from the M38A1.

    The shackle reverse allows the front springs to trail from the front anchors.  With anchors at the rear of the springs (your chassis), the frame is pushing the front axle forward with the springs.  Off-pavement, the shackle reverse enables the axle to rise and set easier when tires press against a rock wall or other immovable objects.  With the stock layout (your CJ's design),  when the front tires press against an obstacle, the front springs arch and wrap up until enough energy "bounces" the axle upward.  On the highway, the shackle reverse makes a considerable difference in steering control and handling.

    My Jeep® CJ Rebuilder's Manual: 1946-71 (Bentley Publishers) illustrates the 1955 CJ-5's frame design.  My Jeep® Owner's Bible and Jeep® CJ Rebuilder's Manual: 1972-86 illustrate aftermarket shackle reverse kits.  There are several aftermarket sources for CJ shackle reverse kits.

    Just some things to consider...Enjoy that Jeep!!!


  7. Stuart...This is just what I envisioned for your end result:  a great venue to enjoy that CJ-7!  The Jeep looks terrific, the terrain does, too...In answer to your questions:

    On 2/15/2020 at 7:54 PM, Stuart_Snow said:

    Life has been busy and I have finally had a chance to go on a few shakedown runs. There are some BLM areas west of Phoenix that I can access via back roads without getting on the interstate. The jeep wants to move on out when I roll it down the highway with the 3:56 gears. I have had it up to 60 @ 2500 rpm...I'm really impressed with how it pulls when accelerating from low rpm. 

    The steering box is worn and needs adjusting or rebuilding...Also with only the old lap belt I'm ready for a shoulder harness for better safety.  Driving on the road requires all your attention and there is some body lean in corners. Did later models come with stabilizers? 

    The steering gear looseness would definitely impact your cornering, too.  If this is manual Saginaw ball-and-nut steering, the gear may have significant wear.  If only slight over-center wear, a minor adjustment might work.  Use the factory service manual for this adjustment, and check for the over-center measurement in particular.  This is an easy gear to rebuild or is available as a complete new unit in the aftermarket.  For alignment and steering performance, the gear must be on center with the front wheels pointed straight ahead.

    Yes, the later CJs did have a sway bar.  In the late seventies, it was standard on models with the factory molded hardtop and optional otherwise.  You either do not have the optional front sway bar or it was removed.  There are a variety of aftermarket sources (Hellwig and other suppliers) for an add-on front sway bar.  If you don't do hardcore trails that require a great amount of axle articulation, a factory style sway bar works well.  If you have a significant lift kit or are articulating the front axle to extremes, you need a sway bar kit with disconnect links for off-pavement rock crawling.

    Off road I really like the option of a low first gear with the T-18 without shifting into low. Shifting the t-case to 4 low or 4 high required some strength. Maybe a twin stick conversion will help this.

    The stock Spicer/Dana 20 transfer case can be stiff to shift.  Driving it a bit may help.  An aftermarket twin stick conversion has added shifting features and is an alternative. 

    The trails are mostly old mining roads and decomposed granite which can make hill climbs a challenge. I pushed it up a steep climb for a test. It finally got steep enough that I ran out of traction with the open diffs and at the same time the carb reached its critical angle of attack and the engine began to buck and snort so I had to abort the climb.

    A traction rear axle would make a world of difference.  I like a manual locker that you can leave in open diff mode when added traction is not necessary or you're driving on an icy off-camber highway or a muddy off-camber trail.  Here, I leave the rear locker in open mode to avoid side slipping.  I prefer the ARB Air Locker, OX and other manual lockers work, too.

    I was amazed at the torque the engine makes even at very low rpm. Maybe Howell fuel injection and some lockers are in my future.  I'm researching the aftermarket parts to beef up the common fail points on these jeeps. 

    The front shackle frame support at the front springs is a weak point.  AMC punched a hole to clear the frame rivet and made this a weak piece.  A major handling and safety gain is a shackle reverse kit for the front axle/springs.  This places the anchor end at the front of the front springs and allows the axle to trail from the frame, rather than the frame pushing the axle forward from the back end of the front springs (stock mode).   Highway handling can improve dramatically, and the shackle reverse kits are usually a mild 2" over stock lift that can be replicated at the rear of the vehicle with 2" lift springs.  Usually, the shackle reverse kit is part of a chassis lift if you want to go that route, but stock height models can surely benefit if you can find a kit that does not involve a lift.

    For now I'm having fun getting to know this jeep after working so hard on it.  I have had it out on a few long trips and made it back with no mechanical issues. Im getting some data on fuel burn which can run from high 12's to 14 mpg. I'm most excited that there are NO LEAKS. This make me very happy and I feel lucky to have this jeep to enjoy. The dog likes it too!

    The mileage is somewhat normal for a 258 six, you'll pick it up a bit after engine break-in...As for our dogs, they are right in their element on a Jeep trip!



  8. Monty...Your modern gear lube is a better product than lube available when this winch was new.  As for the lifespan of a Koenig PTO winch in good condition, you have a winner!  Koenig's Texas base was a hint about its primary market:  oil field trucks and industrial applications.  This was not a recreational market, and commercial usage demanded efficiency and reliability.  Hoisting equipment was another market, and Koenig winches were often seen on wreckers and tow trucks.  Ramsey and Koenig competed with each other for this commercial market, and each became popular in the emerging recreational markets. 

    Koenig had a firm market in oilfield work, mining, mineral exploration, hoisting and industrial winches.  Yes, you have an "industrial strength" winch, and PTO power is the ultimate torque source with gearing—as long as the engine is not stalled while stream fording or scaling a rock wall.  Here, an electric winch prevails.


  9. Additional exchange with Lynn:

     Question from Lynn:   "I am hoping this is the last time I’m bothering you about pinion angles. Thanks again for the in depth explanations...I downloaded an app to measure angles a little more accurately.  I came up with 13.5° on driveshaft and 8.5° on pinion yoke. So does that work out to be a 3° shim I need?  Also I believe when shims are installed on CV driveshaft the beefy end will be facing the rear of Jeep?"

    Lynn...Your measurements must be with the vehicle on level ground and the body's weight fully on the axles…If you measured the pinion yoke at the flange flat (with the yoke flanges pointed straight up and down), then the pinion shaft is on an 8.5-degree slope or angle.  If the pinion shaft is on an 8.5 degree slope, and the driveshaft is on a 13.5-degree slope angle, the difference between the two angles is 5 degrees.  You want to reduce this difference to 1.5 to 2 degrees.  Rotating the axle housing and pinion shaft upward with a three degree shim set should work.  The end result will be 2-degrees of U-joint tilt or angle.

    Most shims, by design, allow minor adjustment in either direction, but 2 degrees is fine.  I run 2-degrees on my XJ's rear U-joint angle.  When you are through installing the shims, with the spring U-bolts torqued evenly to specification and the Jeep on level ground with body weight on the axles, you should have a 2-degree or less rear U-joint angle or tilt.  The driveshaft slope angle may decrease slightly when the pinion rotates upward, dropping the difference figure closer to 1.5 degrees.  Let us know your final readings.

    The "shims" are wedge-shaped metal plates that fit between the axle perches and the leaf springs on your Jeep XJ Cherokee.  (The TJ and newer Wranglers have link-and-coil spring suspension, and the shim fit is different.)  You will be raising the vehicle safely, supporting the body/frame, allowing the springs to sag fully, and then loosening the spring U-bolts evenly.  When there is enough gap between the spring centering bolt and the axle spring perch to allow inserting the wedge shim, the shim's narrow end will face forward.  When both shims are in place, the tapered shims rotate the axle housing and pinion shaft upward to reduce the U-joint angle...Shims are not installed on the CV driveshaft itself; the tapered shims fit between the axle spring perches and leaf springs to rotate the axle housing and pinion shaft.  This rotation changes the pinion angle.

    I use steel (not aluminum) shims that match the width of the leaf springs.  Shims need to support the leaf springs properly.  Torque the spring U-bolt nuts in cross and evenly to factory torque specification. I like to re-check the nut torque after driving the vehicle and cycling the suspension.






  10. Lynn shared this photo.  Here, he has only measured the driveshaft slope...Below the photo is my explanation of how to measure the driveshaft-to-pinion shaft (U-joint tilt) angle:


    Lynn...I looked closer at your photo and saw the string measurement.  This must be your driveshaft (tube) slope with the vehicle level.  The measurement you want is the angle between the driveshaft (tube) and the axle pinion shaft.  If you draw a line straight out from the pinion shaft centerline and measure its relationship to the driveline slope, you have the angle you want.  Put simpler, you can place your string gauge on the flat outer flange of the pinion yoke with the pinion/U-joint yoke facing straight up and down.

    Note:  For pinion angle reference, the axle’s pinion shaft centerline is parallel to the pinion yoke’s outer flanges.  The magnetic angle gauges attach to the U-joint yoke’s outer flange(s).  It is important that the U-joint yoke’s flanges face straight up and down when measuring this angle.

    The 1.5 to 2 degrees is the angle or tilt of the rear U-joint.  If your driveline slope with a string line gauge is 20 degrees, the axle’s pinion centerline angle should be 18.5 to 18 degrees.  (In geometry or trigonometry, the angle between the driveline tube and pinion shaft centerline is two intersecting slope lines with a deviation of 1.5 to 2 degrees.)  With the CV driveline, the axle’s pinion yoke joint angle approaches a straight line with the driveshaft tube, deviating only 1.5 to 2 degrees from straight.  That tilt has the axle pinion shaft pointed slightly downward.

    The usual tools for measuring this angle would be a protractor gauge or a magnetic spirit/bubble level gauge.  Both measure in degrees like your string gauge and plumb bob.  Your approach can work if you use the gauge and plumb bob/string properly.  When the axle housing is rotated correctly, the driveshaft tube will appear to run nearly straight into the pinion, the tilt being only the slight 1.5 to 2 degrees.

    Below is a factory/Mopar Inclinometer (7663) tool for measuring U-joint flange angles and, in this instance, the front axle caster angle.  This gauge has a spirit/bubble and a tilt scale in degrees.  The top of the gauge has a magnet that attaches to a U-joint yoke flange:

    Adjusting camber of front axle while setting lengths of link arms.

    Here is a time-honored Spicer Anglemaster gauge, the latest "Anglemaster II" version.  Note that this gauge attaches on the flatly machined flange end of the U-joint yoke.  This angle can be quickly compared to the slope angle of the driveshaft.  The difference between the two angles is the U-joint tilt or joint angle.  These angles are always measured with the vehicle at normal/curb ride height and vehicle weight on the axle(s).  Do not take driveline and joint angle measurements with the axle hanging off the floor.  The vehicle should be standing on level ground or with the axle(s) supported safely on jack stands or tripod stands.  Driveline angles for trucks or SUVs that carry a hefty load should be measured with the full payload on the axles:


    For more information on an SYE conversion and the use of a CV rear driveshaft, visit:  4WD Mechanix Magazine article on an NP/NV231 transfer case SYE kit installation, click here.  For details on our XJ Cherokee's 6-inch long arm lift that required an SYE and CV rear driveline, click here for the magazine article at 4WD Mechanix.


  11. Speed, I have a suggestion for a 1978-87 Toyota pickup service manual that you would find very helpful:  Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual by Robert Bentley Publisher.  Bentley is my book publisher, and they do the factory shop manuals for VW North America and Porsche, very professional, detailed stuff.  My Toyota Truck and Land Cruiser Owner's Bible is in the Bentley Publishers book stable, but in this case I'm referring to an earlier Bentley in-house book that was model year specific and a designated shop/repair manual.

    The Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual is no longer in print and would need to be found and purchased used at Amazon, eBay or from an automotive literature (used books) outlet.  Here's an earlier printing (through 1984 models) at Amazon:  https://www.amazon.com/Toyota-Pickup-Truck-Service-Manual/dp/0837602521/ref=sr_1_fkmr1_1?keywords=Toyota+Pickup%2C+4Runner+SErvice+Manual+Robert+Bentley&qid=1577800801&s=books&sr=8-1-fkmr1

    If you can find a copy of Bentley's Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual on eBay or through used book channels, it has far more detail and helpful content than Haynes or any other aftermarket book.  In the "Brakes and Wheels" Chapter 8, Pages 7-10 of the 1978-87 edition, there is a section devoted to your truck's Load-Sensing Proportioning System, including useful illustrations of the parts relationships and their original shapes.

    Equipped with a quality shop manual (either the book I'm suggesting or an official Toyota FSM that covers your truck), your confidence would soar.  Unfortunately, many shops do not follow these protocols and either do not have the right books or have functionally illiterate, "know-it-all" staff.  Social media like YouTube has gone further to dumb down and trivialize automotive work.  Better training standards, brake work certification tests (like the trucking industry) and pay incentives would be helpful in this country.  NIASE is a step in that direction but does not train techs to work on specific vehicles, model types or unique brake devices like your Toyota load-sensing rear brake proportioning system. 

    I have bookcases full of FSMs from the 1940s to present and general automotive trade books dating back to the 1920s.  Despite 52 years of professional automotive work, I still rely upon factory-level shop procedures and protocols.  Anyone who doesn't is not performing professional grade work.

    If you cannot find or afford a used copy of the Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual, let me know.  I'll scan the four pages described from the copy setting in my bookcase and post as a PDF.  My publisher will not be offended nor cite me for infringing on copyright, the book is no longer in the market.


  12. When installing a CV or SYE rear driveline, the rear axle pinion angle is important.  A Jeep XJ Cherokee owner asked me about this angle and axle shimming (changing the pinion shaft angle).  Here is our exchange:

    XJ Cherokee Owner's Question:  "Mr. Ludel...I am wondering if you have an SYE on your XJ?  I had one put on with a Tom Woods driveshaft.  [The Jeep] rides smoother with its 2 1/2” lift, but I did not install shims. Are  shims a must with an SYE?...Lynn W."

    My reply:   Hi, Lynn…An SYE driveshaft has a double-Cardan or CV front joint.  A double-Cardan joint has self-cancelling angles.  The angle at the pinion/axle end of the rear driveshaft is important, however.  That angle with an SYE/CV driveshaft should be 1.5 to 2-degrees.  This is measured with the vehicle on the ground or the axles weighted.  If the rear joint is straight (0-degrees), there will be inadequate rotation of the needle bearings inside the U-joint.  The joint will fail prematurely…Too much rear U-joint angle is not good either. 

    So, to answer your question, you do want to shim/rotate the rear axle and pinion shaft to achieve a 1.5 to 2-degree rear U-joint angle.  I use hard steel (not aluminum) shims...Moses

    Here are Lynn's photos...This shaft needs a rear U-joint angle adjustment:


    Lynn's SYE and CV driveshaft has a Double-Cardan front joint...Here, the double U-joints cancel each other's angles...


    Lynn's rear axle pinion joint angle needs to be corrected.  This single Cardan joint should run at 1.5 to 2 degrees, set with the vehicle's weight on the axles...To correct the pinion angle, wedge shaped shims fit between the rear axle's spring perches and the leaf springs.  Pinion/U-joint angle is corrected with these shims.

  13. Hi, Speed, have a safe and pleasant New Year...Best in 2020...See my comments below:

    2 hours ago, Speed said:

       The Toyota developed a NEW issue-no spark. It died on the road,suddenly,just like I turned off the ignition. Plenty of cranking power,but NO spark. After having the coil tested and found okay,popular opinion is that the ignitor is the problem. I now have the parts to convert to a GM ignition module,I just need to make an aluminum base plate to mount the module to and get some di-electric grease,and grow some warm weather to do the install and it should be a runner again.

    Yep, the ignitor was a time-honored issue and spendy item with these Toyota electronic ignitions.  For peace of mind, it would be good to test the old unit, but your GM module conversion sounds a lot cheaper, readily available and more reliable in any case.  Where did you get the info on that conversion?  Is it an easy splice-in?

       I bought a fuel pressure regulator and installed it,set to 2-1/2 psi to start with,then I went through and re-set the carb to the specs listed in the installation papers. Once I have it running again I can go through and fine-tune it a bit.

    Better you should be the tuner.  You'll be well up the learning curve on the Weber carburetor.


    2 hours ago, Speed said:

       Following that,my only urgent task will be figuring out where the water is getting into the cab and dripping onto the stereo,the CB and the seat on both sides. It's getting pretty annoying.

    Is this a replacement cab for the rollover cab?  Or is this the cab that took the major shot?

       Now that you mention the brake booster,it reminds me-the brakes have never felt completely right since the "Car Doctors" shop  "rebuilt" them. I had to extend the push rod between the master cylinder and the booster about an inch to even HAVE brakes. The truck stops well enough,but I suspect the rear brakes aren't playing. As I stop,the brakes are quite good,but as I roll down to a stop,it feels like the front brakes grab hard enough that it feels like the axle "winds up",bouncing the truck backwards slightly. I think the rear brakes just need adjusting.

    Didn't you have a proportioning valve issue at the rear brakes?  The factory chassis height valve?  Is this in place, adjusted and working properly?

    I have 2 of the 3 cables needed to fix the E-brake,so I'd like to try fixing that,if I can sort out their weird cable routing. That also was supposed to be done in the brake "rebuild". Since it wasn't possible at the time for me to do without the truck,I fixed what I had to,to be able to drive it,and by the time I had alternate transportation it was too late to claim their shoddy workmanship in a Court case.

    Sounds like you're unhappy with the sublet brake work...This is why I've always done my own work:  I'm accountable and not on a flat-rate schedule.  When you can do your own repairs, you're better off.  Do you have the tools, work space and a factory-grade service manual for your Toyota pickup?



  14. Monty...As a guess, the "KT88" bearing is likely a Timken T88.  The "K" could be for "Koenig" parts inventory replacement purposes.  Below is an illustration of the T88 Timken bearing.  Does this look like a match?  If this is it, the number is current, and retail price has it at $10-$15 from a variety of sources. 

    I've added two part numbers that Timken still uses.  The links are live and go to Motion Industries.  If you can confirm the bearing fit (see sizes), the bearing is available from any Timken source.  There is a small image below the larger one that may be helpful.



    Timken T88 Taper

    Timken Tapered Roller Thrust Bearing - 0.885 in Bore, 1.8906 in OD, 0.594 in Width

    Timken T88W-904A3

    Tapered Roller Thrust Bearing - 0.885 in Bore, 1.8906 in OD, 0.594 in Width


    Timken T88-904A1

    Tapered Roller Thrust Bearing - 0.885 in Bore, 1.8906 in OD, 0.594 in Width


  15. Wow, Stuart, the long and winding road!  Years ago, Arizona required a simple tailpipe reading for emissions and never opened the hood.  That changed, as you hint, to match California and other states where a visual inspection of emissions equipment is a mandatory part of emissions tests.  Maybe there is a model year cutoff for the full inspection test, and if old enough, a vehicle reverts to the older tailpipe reading only method?  Or does this have to do with your zip code?

    Pleased that you're on the road.  This must be gratifying.  The high HC/CO readings with your original carburetor could have reflected a unit with the wrong jetting.  You were meticulous in your approach to rebuilding the carburetor, it should have performed to OEM standards.  (The old carburetor may not have been in original form.)  In any case, the El Monte shop's build must have the right jet and metering rod.

    Keep us posted on the performance and your driving impressions.  Yes, the CJ-7 is a great improvement over the vintage Jeep CJ3B chassis, worlds apart.  You have a longer wheelbase (94" versus 80") to smooth out the washboard roads plus longer springs to improve ride quality and control. 

    I like an aftermarket front spring/shackle reverse on any of the Jeep models through the YJ Wrangler.  Vehicle control and steering improve, and there's less frame impact when climbing over rocks or limbs.  The front axle trails instead of being pushed forward from the anchor (rear) end of the front springs.  Something to consider, not a must.

    Where will you be driving off-road at Arizona?  You have a wealth of open country to explore!

    Season's Best,


  16. The Clark slipping out of 5th does sound like worn bearings, most likely at the nose end of the main/output shaft.  This is the pilot bore bearing (not to be confused with the crankshaft/input shaft pilot bearing) that keeps the main shaft aligned.  End bearings are likely worn, too.  (A worn crankshaft pilot can cause jumping out of the other gears.)  Bearings are not that expensive if you want to tackle this rebuild yourself.  The bearing set, seals and making gaskets for a Clark would be less costly than a core/used SM465...As for noise, much if it is harmonic and inherent to spur gear transmissions.

  17. That's what I thought...I serviced a period I-H RD406 powered dump truck in the late 'sixties that had your box.  It was a double-clutch, straight cut gear (non-synchromesh) Clark.  These units are bulletproof but do require a savvy driver, of which there are few in this era.  Yes, it would make the ultimate transmission for some applications but would weigh too much and require a divorced transfer case in a 4x4.  There is no room for such a transmission and divorced transfer case on a shorter wheelbase 4x4.  Doubt that's the market for an iron Clark 5-speed.  Why don't you want to run the Clark?  It's a somewhat rare bird in vintage Advance Design GMC trucks, the SM420 4-speed was common.  

  18. Speed...Glad you're aware of the PSI limit for the Weber.  It's even lower than I thought, good that you have the specification of 3.5 PSI maximum.  If the stock fuel pump puts out too much pressure, there are inline pressure regulators that can be manually adjusted to the desired pressure.  This has been the time-honored way to damp down pressure on these Weber installations.  On Jeep CJ/YJ 4.2L engines, the AMC inline six fuel pump is in the 6-7 PSI range, which can wreak havoc on a Weber float and needle.  If pressure is too high, a Weber will over-fuel the engine.

    Sounds like you have a vacuum leak, maybe a good one.  When backing the throttle stop screw out completely, if the engine continues to run fast, that's a sign of air entering the A/F stream from somewhere.  If not a vacuum leak, you may be pushing too much fuel due to excessive fuel pump pressure as we've discussed.  Check the fuel pump pressure.

    Check for a vacuum/air leak.  A simple approach is a can of WD-40 or a similar low volatility petroleum base spray cleaner.  (Avoid hot areas like the exhaust manifold!)  Spray a light mist around the carburetor base, the intake manifold junction with the head and the vacuum hoses.  Engine speed changes indicate a leak...Cap off or plug vacuum lines if you suspect a vacuum hose or device leak.  See whether that helps identify the leak(s)...Even the brake booster can create a vacuum leak, often a big one if the diaphragm or check valve bleed off.


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