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Moses Ludel

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Everything posted by Moses Ludel

  1. Speed...The SM465 has a compound low of 6.55:1; the NP435L and NP435E versions have the sought after compound low of 6.68:1; the sought after SM420 has a 7.05:1 compound low gear. There are taller geared versions of the NP435 and SM420. I believe all SM465 units are 6.55:1 in 1st gear. Always check the 1st gear ratio before buying any of these units. The NP435 dates to 1962, so there are applications with an E-brake on the output end. 'Sixties and even later medium duty truck applications of the NP435 and SM465 should turn up an E-brake at the output. Here is a nice rundown of the NP435 applications. I-H and GM medium-duty models would be a place to start: https://www.hemmings.com/magazine/hmn/2015/11/New-Process-435-Four-speed-Transmission/3749160.html The Clark transmission is a good default position. They were found in trucks similar to yours and work well for their intended usage. I serviced and drove that early 'fifties I-H medium duty with the RD406 inline six and Clark 5-speed. It worked perfectly fine and kept my double-clutching skills sharp. Higher compression with a long stroke vintage engine design has always been dicey. Running a maximum of 8:1, possibly 8.5:1, seems plenty for any of these engines. Your rpm ceiling makes perfect sense, 3000 rpm is well up there, though I'm sure vintage racers reached 4,500-5,000 rpm. For how long? Anyone's guess. Moses
  2. Moses Ludel

    Rare Aussie1966 Willys 4x4 Pickup

    Ian, I'm sure your Aussie Willys 4WD Pickup will draw much attention as those miles accumulate!
  3. This is a good question, Speed. You need enough clutch master cylinder piston stroke and pedal travel to displace enough fluid to release the clutch. The clutch slave/release bearing must travel far enough to move the clutch cover pressure plate away from the clutch disk. If your pedal hits the floor too soon, without displacing enough fluid, the clutch fingers will not go far enough to release the clutch. Your concern here would be pedal travel. Do you need the pedal to travel further? If so, a longer pedal pushrod would help, and that would raise the pedal further from the floorboard. In any case, when the pedal is fully released, there should be a slight gap between the pedal pushrod and the clutch master cylinder piston. This enables the clutch master cylinder's piston to fully retract, which enables the clutch master cylinder to displace enough fluid when the clutch pedal moves the pushrod over its full range of travel. Another overlooked possibility is a clutch master cylinder piston seal that simply does not hold fluid and pressure properly. Fluid could be seeping past the piston seal and not moving through the hydraulic line into the clutch hydraulic release bearing. This happens with brake master cylinders as well. Glad you're working out the rest of the vehicle's wrinkles... Moses
  4. Moses Ludel

    Rare Aussie1966 Willys 4x4 Pickup

    Ian...The windshield installation looks fantastic, this involved two-piece glass and divider is a vintage cue. Worth the extensive effort, the windshield gives the truck an authentic "look"... Quite a project, you persevered! Nice work...The tray/flatbed deck at the back should do it...Is the powertrain ready for the long haul? Moses
  5. Busy, busy. Where do you source quality switches? Jeep XJs have a laundry list of switches that fail. Explorer, too?
  6. Moses Ludel

    Honda XR650L Trouble

    Will share your praise for the 400 with my son, he's heard it from me, but your view is hands-on...Apparently, there's a reason for the cult following...I'm drawn to the dry-sump oiling system and oil cooler...This is as good as it gets for an air-cooled engine (ask Porsche) and why I am storing a vintage XR500R for restoration. My 1984 XR350R is a wet sump. Both of these models have dual carburetors...The 400 is a single carburetor model, simpler if not "better".
  7. Moses Ludel

    Rear Disc Conversion options

    Knew you had the front earmarked for disc brakes, was that a Jeep-parts conversion? Are you keeping the master cylinder beneath the floorboard? The master cylinder needs to be 4-wheel disc brake application; drum brake master cylinder outlet ports will have residual pressure valves. On my '55 CJ 4-wheel disc conversion, the drum-type dual master cylinder required removal of residual pressure valves from the master cylinder's outlet ports. (Valves are behind the removable flare seats.) This is a 1972 Jeep CJ master cylinder for a four-wheel drum brake system. Note the two residual check-valves, one for each end of the vehicle's braking system. Converting to disc brakes, I removed these residual check valves and springs then carefully reinstalled the flare seats. The first Jeep CJs with disc front/drum rear brakes have a check valve at the rear drum port and no check valve at the front disc brake system. This 1973-80 Chilton image shows a tandem master cylinder with one check valve on the rear (drum) brake circuit and no check valve on the front (disc brake) system. Late model vehicles have residual (very low pressure) devices just to keep pads next to the rotors and prevent lag on brake application. Late disc brake applications do have low hydraulic residual pressure, just enough to keep pads close to the rotors. This pressure, however, is lower than drum brake residual valve pressure. Drum brake residual pressure keeps the wheel cylinder cups expanded and sealing. Stout brake shoe return springs overcome the residual pressure and keep the shoes from pressing against the drum and dragging. Typical residual pressure for a drum brake Jeep master cylinder would be 10-12 psi. (Aftermarket Wilwood residual valves for drum brakes are around 10 psi.) This is well below the shoe retraction spring tension. This residual pressure level, however, would be high enough to cause disc brake pads to drag on the rotors. This amount of residual pressure will cause premature pad wear, overheating of the rotors, brake drag and even wheel lockup if applied within a disc brake system. Speedway Motors offers a 2 psi residual valve (inline mounted) for disc brake systems that use a beneath-the-floorboard master cylinder. They hint that the firewall mounted cylinders have enough gravity feed pressure (not sure about this one) to overcome a spongy pedal or slight lag when applying the disc brakes. My dual drum brake master cylinder, mounted beneath the floorboard with both residual valves removed, feeds front and rear disc brakes without timing/lag issues or pedal sponginess. Earlier OEM disc/drum systems have no residual pressure valve on the disc brake portion of the braking system although these systems do have firewall mounted master cylinders. The 2 psi residual valve would be like late four-wheel disc systems. You can watch for any signs of lag or pedal sponginess. These 2 psi valves are available if needed.
  8. Moses Ludel

    Honda XR650L Trouble

    Did you like the XR400R? There's a cult following, and my son picked one up with only 134 original miles (nubs still on the tires!). It's stored at the moment, and we'll ride this Spring. Air cooled with dry sump, should be a nice trail and desert bike...
  9. Moses Ludel

    Rear Disc Conversion options

    So, Samurai front rotors for the rear and front of your 3B or for the rear only? Another approach at the front? This should be adequate at the rear. You may need a proportioning valve although the short wheelbase (80" in your case) often offsets vehicle pitch. A mechanical proportioning valve is available from Wilwood and others if you need it. If you're still running the Model 18 transfer case, you do have an E-brake on the rear driveshaft. In good condition without oil on the shoes, these brakes are tried and proven. Moses
  10. Moses Ludel

    YZ250 Woods Weapon Build

    Wow, thanks for the update! I've been in a dialogue with a local KTM 250 owner who is considering that clutch. He has the older technology Rekluse and likes it a lot. I'll share both of your findings, the Boyeson Rad Valve also sounds impressive! The Moab trip with bikes would be fun, I've considered doing it many times, talking myself out of taking an XR during Easter Jeep Safari, which for me is always a "work week". On that note, I would avoid sharing trails with the 20K people who flood Moab for EJS, the rates for lodging and food get inflated badly during the EJS week. City Market holds to normal pricing for those camping out; the market is part of Kroger's chain and deserves a plug!
  11. Moses Ludel

    Honda XR650L Trouble

    Glad your work on the XR650L turned out well and that you caught the valve adjustment need right away. Would be a shame to damage a fresh valve job...The Africa Twin is bigger than my XR650R, which is actually okay with single track. Weight is a large factor. Tires can make a big difference, your findings will be helpful to other owners of Africa Twins. Your Africa Twin has the manual clutch, right? Not the semi-automatic transmission...I spent time at the local dealer at Reno, the floor model was the semi-automatic. I'm old school here.
  12. Moses Ludel

    Rear Disc Conversion options

    Do these brackets work with GM S/T truck calipers and OE replacement (late '70s to '86) Jeep CJ rotors? If so, they could be the brackets or at least similar to the type Warn produced. (As you know, Warn has been based at Clackamas and Milwaukee, Oregon.) I used that style bracket with Warn's recommended GM single piston calipers and the correct diameter and thickness rotors...$200 for the complete conversion is terrific! Good job...
  13. Moses Ludel

    4.2L Re-build 77 CJ-7 Project

    Stuart, you're right where you want to be on #1, #4 and #5 cylinders. The MPR-301 might be a consideration for the #2, #3 and #6 pushrods that now have 0.052" preload. That would be a 9.594" pushrod, which would reduce preload by 0.028". The current three valves with 0.052" preload would have 0.024" preload with the MPR-301 pushrods. 0.024" is just enough preload and would increase slightly with normal valve wear. To save the hassle, I would stick with the current pushrods (0.052" preload) to assure adequate preload. You have plenty of lifter plunger travel for the 0.052" preload plus an allowance for normal valve and seat wear over time. If you're curious, the lifter plunger travel can be easily measured from its fully extended plunger (against the retainer clip) to the fully depressed plunger with no oil in the plunger cavity. (This should be done with the lifter just out of the box or without priming.) You're measuring the total travel available. Subtract the preload amount, and you have the remaining travel. Make sure you add a zinc engine break-in supplement before running the fresh engine. Lucas and others make a supplement specifically for this purpose. Contemporary oils do not have zinc additive, and you need a zinc additive to protect the (flat tappet) camshaft lobe-to-lifter base. Protect the cam-and-lifters during the break-in period. Many continue to add a ZDDP additive after break-in. The biggest concern is the break-in period. Moses
  14. Moses Ludel

    Rear Disc Conversion options

    Hi, 53HiHood! The 6-stud axle flange pattern is common to all Dana/Spicer light axles and also used by others. There may be a flange ring used for spacing or as a bearing retainer, etc. Poke around, see what's out there, maybe early Ford or an F-truck with a Spicer 44 rear axle (1949-56). '55 (Second Series) to mid-'sixties GMC light trucks also used Spicer 44/45 rear axles. Lincoln, Studebaker and others also used the Spicer 44-type axle, too. Bearing retainer rings might work. Or backing plates could be TorchMate/plasma cut to make flange rings. Plasma cutting two plates with a TorchMate would not be difficult, you can use the original axle flange ends or Jeep axle bearing end-play shims as a pattern. You're simply creating a spacer, not a support/safety member like a caliper mounting bracket...Use the right metal for the application. Moses
  15. Moses Ludel

    4.2L Re-build 77 CJ-7 Project

    Hi, Stuart...Thanks for sharing the CompCams adjustable pushrod tool with Members and Guests! Below is a listing of the various Melling pushrod lengths. You may be as close as it gets with the current pushrods, and there is plenty of reserve plunger travel within the lifters. Would the next available pushrod (shorter) create too little preload? Here are typical Melling offerings for the pre-4.0L era inline sixes (258/4.2L). You likely were sold the Melling MPR-301 or MPR-333 pushrods installed, depending upon your cylinder head type. When selecting pushrods, make sure the ball ends and lubrication method are correct for your engine application: [MELLING OEM REPLACEMENT PUSH RODS FOR AMC 258/4.2L INLINE SIXES] MPR-301 9.594” x 5/16 1971-1974 without Rocker Arm Shaft MRP-332 9.658” x 5/16 1971-1974 with Rocker Arm Shaft (BB ends) MPR-301 9.594” x 5/16 1975-1976 MPR-301 9.594” x 5/16 1977 w/ Temp Sending Unit in front of engine MPR-333 9.622” x 5/16 1977 w/ Temp Sending Unit in rear of engine MPR-333 9.622” x 5/16 1978-1980 MPR-353 9.700” x 5/16 1981-1988 So this is a classic example of valve work and decking/milling. The plunger preload for a "standard" (1977 4.2L/258 OE replacement length) pushrod has increased, likely due to the head height being lower. Your cylinder head was surfaced, right? Block was surfaced/decked, too? Even the head gasket thickness can impact the lifter preload, then there's always the valve seat depth and valve stem height. If the original cast seats were cut (no steel inserts installed), this raised the valve stem height and increased valve lifter preload. This was a smart test, Stuart. You could have second guessed that there was reasonably close preload, but this approach eliminates that guesswork. Curious to see whether all of these standard length pushrods will work. Moses
  16. Moses Ludel

    4.2L Re-build 77 CJ-7 Project

    Happy New Year, Stuart...Pleased that you're getting the CompCams tool. It's easy to use and intuitive. New Melling and other source pushrods are available at a variety of lengths, which should make the selection process simpler. Of course, there are also adjustable pushrods, but that's a more costly alternative. Melling fixed-length pushrods sell individually, so you have the ability to precisely fit individual pushrods. In the heyday of AMC inline sixes, head work typically meant grinding the original seats and refacing the valves—at least the intakes, new exhaust valves were often installed. This raised the valve stem heights. Machinists used a bridge gage to determine the height of the valve stem above the cylinder head deck. With the head on the bench after seat and valve reconditioning, the gage was fitted squarely over the top of the seated valve's stem. Valve stem tips were ground individually to correct the stem height. The other factor that needed consideration was block decking and cylinder head surfacing. Either or both processes will lower the cylinder head toward the camshaft, which has the same effect as increasing the length of the pushrods. The result is too much lifter preload. Note: Modern machine shops usually match up the valve stem heights when grinding valves and doing seat work. This makes pushrod fitting easier...Using the CompCams pushrod fitting tool, regardless of the valve seat depth, the valve stem heights, block decking or head surfacing, you can determine the right pushrod length for the desired lifter preload. Considering all of this, the best remedy is to fit the pushrods with an adjustable gage like the CompCams tool. Follow the directions provided with the tool...I'll gladly answer any questions you have during this process...If you could snap a few photos of your pushrod length tests, others will benefit from seeing how quickly you demystify the valve clearance/lifter preload issue for this engine. Moses
  17. Moses Ludel

    Rare Aussie1966 Willys 4x4 Pickup

    Hi, Ian, Happy New Year! The headliner looks "professional", you did figure this out. The Toyota top bows should keep your handiwork in place... The Willys/Kaiser plant at Australia was no different than the Willys plant at Toledo. Parts were mixed and used as available. A classic example was the 1955-56 era CJ-5 and CJ-6. Willys used M38A1 frames, windshields and other parts in these models. My '55 had "reversed shackles" at the front springs, the frame was M38A1 derivative. Actually a better design than the CJs with their front spring anchors at the rear of the leaf springs. Mine had a one-piece windshield, many had the two-piece design from the M38A1. Your infinite patience will see you through this project. Glad the Toyota diesel is worthy. An option would be the Cummins R2.8L if you hit the lottery... Moses
  18. Moses Ludel

    Rare Aussie1966 Willys 4x4 Pickup

    Very cool pattern, Ian! Reminds me of Native American petroglyphs at our local Great Basin (USA). Australia has incredible Aboriginal artwork in the Outback and elsewhere dating back 40,000 years...Fitting theme for the Willys! Moses
  19. Similar to earlier Jeep YJ Wrangler hydraulic slave release bearing...Yes, one challenge at a time...Eventually, all gets done. I know the drill...
  20. Holiday Best, Speed...We're nearing New Year's Eve with the temps dipping as expected this time of year, Elko especially. Here are the factory steps for bleeding a 1993 Ford F-truck or Bronco (full-size) with either the external slave or the concentric slave. Your Explorer or a Bronco II should be similar to one type slave or the other: 1993 Ford Truck Clutch Bleed.pdf For hydraulic brake and clutch systems, I prefer vacuum bleeding from the wheel cylinder, caliper or slave end. This is not possible on clutch slave cylinders like the Jeep Wranglers that have no bleeder valve and use a fixed line at the slave. One method that has worked for me is bleeding the clutch at the clutch line/fitting where it attaches to the clutch master cylinder. Crack that fitting just enough for air and a slight amount of fluid to escape with pressure applied at the pedal. Wedge the pedal at the applied position for a while. Air should escape as bubbles compress. Sometimes, it's only necessary to apply pressure and hold this pressure for a while without loosening the fitting. Air will rise to the master cylinder as you hint. Look over the '93 Ford truck details. Which style clutch slave do you have on the Explorer? What method will work? Moses
  21. Moses Ludel

    4.2L Re-build 77 CJ-7 Project

    Hi, Stuart! Pushrods often get overlooked and can be reused in many cases. I like to roll the original pushrods on a piece of flat glass to check for straightness. Ends can wear, a concern of course...Replacing the pushrods as you have done is a fail-safe approach, and Melling remains a high quality engine parts source. (I always use a Melling replacement oil pump, most often a High Volume design. OEM Jeep oil pressure runs quite high, so a quality OEM replacement pump by Melling is plenty.) Did you check pushrod length to match the valve and lifter height? How far do the pushrods depress the lifter cups—with each piston at TDC on its compression stroke? (This is measurable at the pushrod end of the rocker arm with a dial indicator. From zero valve and pushrod clearance, measure the amount of cup drop into the lifter as you tighten down the rocker bridge. This amount is lifter preload.) If you surface the head, reface valves, grind or replace valve seats and/or deck the block, the lifter plunger height—with the lifter base on the heel of the camshaft lobe—is worth checking. There is some latitude built into the lifter's preload plunger range. Here is a vlog I did on valve "adjustment" for fixed rocker AMC/Jeep sixes: https://www.4wdmechanix.com/jeep-232-258-and-4-0l-inline-six-and-2-5l-straight-four-valve-clearances-and-adjustment/ Here's valve lifter adjustment on a typical Jeep six here at the forums: https://forums.4wdmechanix.com/topic/849-choosing-jeep-40l-and-stroker-six-pushrod-length/ There's a simpler way around all of this: a pushrod length tester like this CompCams item: https://www.summitracing.com/parts/cca-7704-1/overview/. This is the tool for testing your pushrod length needs. The tool determines the gap between the lifter cup (with lifter plunger fully extended and the camshaft on the heel of its lobe) and the rocker arm cup. The rocker arm is secured in place for this measurement. When the tool is adjusted to fill this gap, you add the amount of normal lifter plunger preload to the tool's length. (Preload can be 0.030"-0.060", I prefer 0.030"-0.040" with a freshened valvetrain. This would be a useful preload range for a flat tappet hydraulic lifter.) The gap length plus the desired amount of lifter plunger preload is the pushrod length you need. Melling and others offer a variety of pushrod lengths (Melling: 9.594" to 9.7" lengths measured end-to-end of pushrod) that will fit the Jeep 4.2L inline engines. You can select the right length and part number for your engine's measurements. Depending upon the camshaft machining and other variables, some take this to the point of varying the pushrod lengths per lifter and valve. As long as you fall within the acceptable range, you're close enough. What you want is a lifter plunger that is not fully extended to the retainer and that also has enough range to compensate for normal valvetrain wear. Valve seat recession will increase the preload, but this should not be a significant amount (thousandths of an inch) over the life of the engine. Wear takes into account the rocker ratio, we'll spare that discussion. Footnote: Do not "fill" or soak the lifters with oil before installation. (I coat the lifter base, pushrod seat and the lifter bore with engine assembly lube.) If filled with oil, the lifter plungers will be fully extended during initial cranking. This will unseat the valves, and depending upon engine design, can even create valve-to-piston crown interference. It takes quite a few crankshaft revolutions to drop a hyper-extended lifter plunger to normal preload height; one formula is 4 crankshaft revolutions per 0.001" of plunger drop. If valves are standing open, this is an issue...I like to assemble the valvetrain completely, to the point you are now, then I prime the oil system. This fills the lifters "normally" and will establish the correct lifter plunger heights and preload without unseating the valves. I like to prime the oiling system with #1 piston at TDC on its compression stroke, then I prime three more times at 180-degree turns of the crankshaft/damper. This allows the lifters to all fill to normal plunger heights before starting the engine. As for the cast aluminum rocker bridges, they work very nicely. Their role is to help stabilize lateral forces at the rocker arms. There are many engines that use rocker pivots like the AMC six but without bridges to resist wobble. AMC was ahead of it here. The bridges have minimal load and seldom break. Failure is usually due to a valve stem or rocker tip with irregular wear. Your engine is a work of art, Stuart...It should run equally well! Moses
  22. Moses Ludel

    4.2L Re-build 77 CJ-7 Project

    As expected...Loctite 592 is the end-all sealant and found on many late model vehicle uses. Caution here is that the paste sets up like a brick, and some complain about removal of parts later. On pinion flanges of axles, this paste prevents oil seepage or wicking out the splines—I've used a HD puller to remove these flanges after years in service. This has not been an issue with 4.0L Jeep sixes and other cylinder head bolts. The torque settings are far less than a pinion flange nut. Traditionally, I have used Permatex Super 300 Form-A-Gasket brush applied sealant. It works very well on head bolt threads. Like any other sealant, torque needs to be applied when the sealant is still "wet" and pliant.
  23. Moses Ludel

    4.2L Re-build 77 CJ-7 Project

    Hi, Stuart! Always pleased to get your updates on the 4.2L engine project...See my comments below...Have a pleasant Holiday Season!
  24. Moses Ludel

    Honda XR650L Trouble

    53HiHood...Always good to hear your news! You're finally past the fire season, which must have been exhaustive this year...Are you still based at Durango Area? Any snow riding with the CRF planned? Moses
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