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Moses Ludel

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Everything posted by Moses Ludel

  1. Carlos...Glad you followed the Pin 21 signal and Light Blue wire lead. An extra pair of eyes was likely helpful, too. Nothing has been lost but time... So you confirmed that Orange is KEY ON hot and the Light Blue lead provides the ground to the injector? Did you try jumping the Light Blue lead directly to a good ground point to see whether the injector flows fuel? If grounding the Light Blue lead operates the injector, the injector is good, and you're missing the ground signal from Pin 21. I would try this: 1) If Orange is KEY ON hot, unplug the injector leads. Make a jumper wire using a low amperage (5-10 amp) inline fuse to protect the device. Run this jumper to the injector's Orange pole. 2) Take another jumper and ground the injector pole where the Light Blue wire attaches. 3) When you turn the key to the ON position and hear the fuel pump running, there should be fuel flow from the injector. Do this briefly to prevent flooding the engine. This approach would confirm that the injector itself is working but the Light Blue ground wire is not getting an ECU signal at Pin 21— as you suspect. The only things that could keep the Pin 21 from sending a signal are 1) your suspicions about a burned circuit on the ECU or 2) the long shot that the crankshaft position sensor signal is weak. The CPS issue is unlikely because you are getting spark, which also requires a CPS (crankshaft position sensor) signal. The sensor is readily accessible at the bellhousing. You could check the CPS for dirt, debris or a poor connection. Sometimes rear main seal oil will reach the sensor. If there is nothing to indicate a problem with the CPS or wiring, and if the injector circuit wires are all intact, and if the fuel pump relay is new or clearly functioning properly at each pole, then a rebuilt ECU would be a worthwhile investment. A number of forum members have narrowed their 2.5L TBI system troubles to the ECU. This is a module that sees a considerable amount of work, load and vibration over time. They do fail. Moses
  2. Jeepdog...So you're confident that the end play/bearing preload are correct? Is there radial play (runout) between the mainshaft's nose and the clutch/input gear's recessed bearing? If you grab the mainshaft (not that easy to do when installed) and pull it up-and-down at the area of the 3rd/4th synchronizer, can you feel radial play or see any rocking between the input gear and mainshaft? Or do the two shafts stay in straight alignment? I asked about the pilot bearing at the rear of the crankshaft. Does it support the nose of the input/clutch gear properly? If not, this could allow the input gear to rock and bind the 3rd/4th gear synchronizer components. Are the 3rd/4th synchronizer keys and springs staying in place and tensioned evenly? Grab the exposed clutch release arm and wiggle it up and down. The lever should rock or pivot only slightly on the release bearing if the collar and arm fit together properly. If you feel excessive movement, fold back the arm's boot and see where the play exists. Here is a forum Warner T5 rebuild thread that might also be helpful: Let's keep pursuing this. Another transmission is not always the fix, you have a lot of time, parts and sublet labor in this installed unit. Moses
  3. Carlos...First let's confirm whether these Orange wiring circuits are hot voltage feeds or not. Using a volt-ohmmeter, with the Key On and Key Off, test the Orange wiring devices on circuits that you know are working—like the fuel pump itself. On that circuit, read the voltage for the Orange feed. We need to know whether Orange wires are hot positive feeds and what voltage they read. If they are hot leads, 12V or otherwise, then Pin 6 to the ECU should also be 12V hot when the Yellow wire activates the fuel pump relay. This test depends upon the fuel pump relay working properly. If you think the fuel pump relay is defective, try another relay in that slot. Using a volt-ohmmeter, test the Orange lead at the fuel pump relay or at the fuel injector for a path to ground. Probe one end of the meter to the Orange lead and the other end to a good ground. If there is continuity, the Orange circuit is grounded. You can test other Orange leads for continuity to ground as well. This will indicate whether all of the Orange leads are connected as shown in the wiring schematics that I provided as PDFs. Also try testing the injector Orange lead to ground with the bulkhead connector disconnected. If the Orange lead showed a path to ground before the bulkhead connector was separated but does not show a path to ground with the bulkhead connector separated, then the Orange circuit is likely grounded at the #6 Pin of the ECU. If there is no sign of a path to ground on the injector's Orange lead with the bulkhead connector disconnected, also check other Orange leads to see if they now show no path to ground. If the ground only takes place with the bulkhead connector attached, the ground source is the ECU via Pin 6. Another troubleshooting route: At the fuel pump relay, which poles show a voltage reading with the ignition switch in the On position? Does the EGR/EVAP solenoid work but the fuel injector does not? The injector is an electro-magnetic pintle. The injector requires positive voltage on one side and a ground completion on the other. If Orange is the hot 12V feed, then Light Blue to the injector must be the ground provided by ECU pin 21. Isolate the injector. If Orange is a hot lead, apply hot current to that pole of the injector. Use a jumper lead to ground on the other pole for testing the injector. If the TBI unit is fuel pressurized, you should see fuel flow when this circuit is complete. Again, first confirm whether Orange is consistently 12V hot/positive voltage when you turn the key to the On position. This would show that the relay is connecting Yellow 12V current to the Orange circuits. If other Orange feed devices work (fuel pump, EGR/EVAP solenoid, etc.), and only the Injector does not work, then either the fuel pump relay is defective or the injector is not getting a signal from Pin 21 of the ECU. Remember, the ECU will send an intermittent (not constant) signal to the injector. The injector does not stay on, it pulses when triggered by the ECU. If the wiring, the relays and ECU are not defective, and if the injector works when you isolate and test it, look for something that could be blocking fuel between the fuel regulator and the injector. If there is no signal from Pin 21 on the ECU to the injector, the ECU could be defective. You could inspect and clean the ECU 35-way connector plug and inspect the pins and slots before condemning the ECU. Moses
  4. Hi, Jeepdog...Sounds like you've put a lot of work into your Jeep CJ-7! 1) I played through the 0:21 second video five times to catch the last few seconds and what appears to be a major issue: The input shaft is floating end wise. The tapered bearing appears to be moving inward, and if the shaft and bearing are not retained properly, the synchronizers will be out of alignment and could be dragging or scraping while the input shaft and mainshaft are flexing. This would account for the brass. 2) The 0:07 second video sounds like something loose, possibly the pivot for the clutch release arm? Or maybe a rattle between the release fork and the release bearing collar? Or maybe a bearing collar I.D. too big for the bearing retainer? Did you change the crankshaft pilot bearing? Is it the right size for the nose end of the T4 input shaft/gear? This might contribute to the clutch back-and-forth noise. This could also be the input gear rattling between the front bearing and the bearing retainer. 3) The 0.36 second video sounds like the front/input gear is floating around and allowing the synchronizer pieces to flex and catch. Have you seen any rub marks on the brass rings? The front gear is not in proper alignment and is allowing other parts to move out of alignment. The shaft is also running out of center when there is that degree of endplay. The problem is most likely the placement and position of the input gear and/or the mainshaft is floating rearward. Something is causing the front drive gear bearing to move forward and back in the retainer/bearing cup. A snap ring could be missing/out of place, or there could be another cause for the shaft to be floating fore-and-aft. The mainshaft must also align properly and stay aligned. To help you understand the relationship of these parts and the need to shim the clutch gear/input bearing to achieve proper bearing preload, here is a vintage video that can help. (You may be missing the shims!) Start at 11:40 to prevent falling asleep in the earlier part of this training video. The illustration is actually a T5 Jeep unit, similar in most respects to your layout: Thrust washers or input bearing shims could be missing and allowing the input or mainshaft to set rearward. You replaced the front bearing retainer, look here first...Missing shims at the front bearing cup would permit the input gear to move forward and back. If these parts do not line up with the shift forks and synchronizers, there will be interference and noise. Also, the synchronizer plates/keys and the synchronizer springs must be positioned correctly during assembly. If not, the keys will jump out of position and could be dragging... Let us know what you find...Here for any questions! Moses
  5. Carlos...Open up the PDFs from yesterday and below...The Yellow wire feeds from the ignition key circuit to the relay. Yellow should read 12V hot with the key in the ON position. There is one Orange lead that connects to Pin 6 of the ECU. In looking at the relay diagram, the Pin 6 Orange lead might be completing the ground to the fuel pump relay and closing the relay switch. The fuel pump relay needs a ground to work with the Yellow lead in order to close the coil/switch inside the relay. Do any of the other Orange leads show continuity to ground? If so, Orange could be a ground completion circuit and Pin 6 is feeding the ground signal from the ECU Pin 6 to the fuel pump relay to close the fuel pump relay switch. See if the ignition KEY ON activates the Yellow wire. The Yellow wire should be 12V hot with the key on. With and without the Yellow lead hot, read between the other poles on the fuel pump relay. Read the Orange wire's pole that feeds to the ECU Pin 6 for ground and hot...With the relay removed and no wires connected to the relay, use a hot jumper wire to create the Yellow pole connection and see if the relay clicks when you attach a ground to the Orange wire's pole (the Pin 6 ECU lead) at the relay. If it does click, then the ECU must be providing the ground side to the fuel pump relay by way of the Orange lead from Pin #6. These relay switches have a magnetic coil that is activated by the yellow (hot) wire on one side and in this case it looks like the Orange wire (a ground from ECU Pin 6?) on the other side of that coil. The relay needs the 12V yellow wire signal and also a ground signal to close the relay switch. Once closed, the other contacts are connected. Test the relay's functions. If no clicking with a hot pole and a ground, try swapping relays to see if you can get a relay to work. There is a second relay called the "B+ Latch Relay" that also interacts with these circuits. You might try replacing that relay. Review that circuit in a PDF: B+ Latch Relay in 2.5L TBI Circuit.pdf The cover in your hand is the bulkhead wire bundle that goes through the firewall. On the dash side of the firewall, some of those wires feed to the ECU. RD is also to the starter relay switch as shown in the B+ Latch Relay PDF above. The other Orange leads depend upon the fuel pump relay to close and provide them with a voltage reading (either hot or ground side, this is D.C.). Below is a PDF of the Bulkhead connector wiring identification and each wire's location on the bulkhead connector. The bulkhead view is from the inside of the firewall, you can follow the color coding from there through the firewall to the engine bay. I also included the 35-Way ECU pin layout with all color coding. See each of the two pages: YJ 2.5L Bulkhead Connection and ECU Pin Readout.pdf If you're not finding poor connections or burned wires, you should focus on the relays and possibly the ECU. Getting the Fuel Pump Relay to function, whether in a simulated test or through the circuits, should get the injector to open. This should help clarify... Moses
  6. Your reasoning is sound, Carlos. Keep in mind, however, that the injector only pulses on when there is an ECU signal from Pin 21 on the ECU. The ECU signal requires that the engine is either cranking or in run mode. There is never a steady opening of the injector, if there were, the injector would continually flow fuel. The injector only flows fuel when the ECU provides a signal from Pin 21. The current to open the injector, signaled from Pin 21, is both the injector open/close and the injector's pulse width. Pulse width is the duration (time interval) that the injector stays open. Note: Remember that fuel is under constant pressure, the fuel flow is strictly controlled by the pulse width of the injector. Width or time interval for the injector pulse determines the amount of fuel flowing, a response to the throttle position and other sensor feedback. When fuel demand is high, the injector open/pulse rate or width is higher. There is no pulse or flow at the injector without the ECU getting a signal from the crankshaft position sensor. The CPS tells the ECU that the engine is either cranking over or has achieved a running state. Make sure the CPS is functioning properly. To your point: The Yellow lead is "Ignition" (a true 12V source), which is the #3 pin at the 35-Way ECU connector. You describe "30", "85" and "87". These are common Bosch relay poles: The relay is a standard Bosch-type numeric, and the poles represent various conditions. The goal of the relay is to energize and create continuity between the intended poles when activated. This is a magnetic relay. It requires a ground and hot to close the circuit or magnetize the relay. Here is the wiring schematic for your YJ Wrangler's 2.5L TBI injector circuit: 2.5L TBI Injector Wiring.pdf I have included an extra page to address the Power Steering switch and other devices involved with the injector circuit. Check out the Power Steering Switch and other circuits for faults, opens or shorting: 2.5L TBI Injector and P.S. Wires.pdf Note that 14 gauge Yellow is the ignition ON source for 12 volts. According to this diagram, the EGR/Evaporator canister purge solenoid ("front of left shock tower") should be fed from a 14-gauge BR (brown) lead that feeds from a junction with 14-gauge Orange wires. Those Orange wires include a feed to the Fuel Injector. You should get continuity between the EGR /Evaporative canister's Brown wire and the injector's Orange wire. Note the pins on the ECU (6, 5, 21 and 18 on Page 8W-107). This should clarify how the ECU pins apply. The firewall bulkhead connector that you discovered includes many of the wires that feed to the 35-Way connector. The 35-Way connector should not be confused with the bulkhead connector. The 35-Way ECU connector is at the ECU unit under the dash. The Fuel Injector needs two signals to activate: 1) The fuel pump relay must function for the Fuel Injector to function. Try another relay in its place. Swap relays or try a new one. 2) The Injector must get a signal from Pin 21 on the 35-Way connector at the ECU. 3) If either the Light Blue signal from Pin 21 or the 14-gauge Orange wire feeding to the injector is not performing properly, you have no Injector flow. 4) Both the fuel pump and injector require Orange circuits to perform properly. The same is true of the Brown lead to the EGR/Evap canister solenoid. The fuel pump working is a good sign as long as all of the Orange wires at the junction have continuity. 5) The EGR/EVAP canister solenoid needs the Blue wire signal from the ECU at Pin 5. 6) The Injector needs the Light Blue wire signal from Pin 21 on the ECU. You can identify these wires at the firewall bulkhead connector. This may save the time and energy of crawling beneath the dash to locate the ECU 35-way connector. If you suspect a break in continuity between the bulkhead and the ECU connector, you'll need to go beneath the dash. See how my comments compare with your thoughts and conclusions...Keep us posted. Moses
  7. Hi, Monty...Yes, you do need to be concerned about tire clearance at the springs on a vintage Jeep CJ. The shallower backspacing (3.75" or less provides more negative wheel offset) would be preferred for your application especially in a wider 8" rim width. 4.03" would be for late model Jeep applications with unit hub wheel bearings. Make sure the 3.75" negative offset is ample enough, these wheels typically fit '76-up CJs. Here are wheels that specifically fit your Jeep CJ although a quick look at the specifications does not indicate the backspacing: https://www.quadratec.com/categories/jeep_wheels/steel_wheels?f[0]=sm_wheel_size%3A15x8&f[1]=sm_wheel_bolt_pattern%3A5 on 5.5" I would dig deeper into the wheels offered at the link above. Pick a wheel you like and go to the manufacturer's website to determine backspacing specifications for that particular wheel. Ultimately, you should ask your tire store to trial fit the wheels/tires before buying them. Most stores, like Discount Tire where I trade, will be price competitive or match the pricing on wheels. The tire size/width/diameter is the wild card. Typically, the vintage Jeep vehicles were candidates for 30" x 9.5 x 15 tires on a 7- or 8-inch wide rim. Beyond this may require a 2" lift for 31" x 10.5" x 15. Try the wheel/tire package before committing. I've had success with modern 31" diameter range radial LT tires on a 16" x 7" rim size. The real issue is your tire/wheel combination and whether the diameter and tread width of the tires will clear the springs. With your Jeep's full-floating front axle and stout rear axle bearing support (semi-floating with Spicer 44 stamina), you have little concern beyond the tire clearance at the front springs and the amount of acceptable stick-out from the fenders. One issue with closed knuckle axles is the modest caster angle, which makes the steering axis inclination different than the post-1975 CJs. When possible, I add positive caster angle to my early Jeep front wheel alignments. Cycle/twist the axles with a floor jack to make sure tires will clear over the range of wheel travel and lock-to-lock steering. If tires steer into the springs very slightly, one solution is to reset the axle/steering stops at the steering knuckles. This reduces the front wheels' turning angle and the vehicle's turning radius, so it must be done prudently. Keep in mind that any increase in tire diameter will demand a speedometer correction. This can be done by changing the speedometer drive pinion at the transfer case. Tooth count on the speedometer pinion determines the speed readout. Let us know how this turns out for your 1966 Jeep CJ! Moses
  8. Rear Disc Conversion options

    53HiHood...I did this on the '55 CJ-5 Jeep in my book. The great thing about Spicer/Dana axles is the common housing end flange pattern for the front and rear axles. I used a kit that was available from Warn at the time, using GM S-truck calipers with Jeep rotors as part of a rear full-floating hub conversion. The kit provided caliper mounting brackets, OE replacement calipers, bearings, hubs, rotors and the axle shafts cut and splined for the application. This provided free-wheeling hubs front and rear, popular for flat towing if you don't have an early Ross cam-and-lever steering gear....Frankly, I don't flat tow vehicles, especially short wheelbase Jeep 4x4s, for a variety of reasons. A full-floating rear axle conversion does involve axle shafts splined for your axle's differential side gears and the wheel hubs. Which axle are you using at the rear? An original Spicer 44 with offset differential? If so, the axle shaft part gets tricky. Warn custom built my axle shafts, and they no longer do any of these conversions nor supply any parts. If stock parts are your plan, you can use late '70s to early 'eighties Jeep CJ disc front wheel hubs, rotors and calipers for simplicity if you do go the full-floating route. You'll need to deal with the axle shaft length issue and caliper mounting brackets. I have seen conversions that simply used the front brake assemblies from the '77-'82 CJ front ends. (The Dana 30 front axle has the same flange pattern as your 44 rear axle). Again, this creates a rear full-floater similar to the Dana 30 front axle. The key here is a caliper mounting bracket that is safe and has the proper offset to center up the calipers. If you go this route with free-wheeling hubs, make sure that you use wheel hubs with the six-bolt free-wheeling hub flange and premium free-wheeling hubs. There is a lot of torque to the wheel hubs in 2WD mode...The axle shaft end float is also a concern, you want to minimize the axle shaft spline end float at the free-wheeling hubs. Some use a solid drive flange instead of free-wheeling hubs. (This would be similar to the front drive flanges used by Willys/Jeep when customers did not retrofit free-wheeling front wheel hubs.) Another angle would be one-piece axle shafts with a solid flange that bolts to the wheel hub. One-piece flanged axle shafts would eliminate the end float issue. Perhaps Moser and others could custom build axle shafts with the right length, side gear splines and end flange pattern for this purpose. We can discuss your findings and parts options... Here is a currently available rear disc conversion for '70-'75 Dana 44 Jeep axles: https://www.quadratec.com/products/32700_001X_PG.htm. You would need to have custom axle shafts made that would accommodate your Spicer 44 axle housing. This is a semi-floating axle arrangement, the axle shaft bearing fit/sizing would need to be compared to your early axle's tapered axle shaft housing and bearing design. One question would be fitting the axle shaft bearings into the early axle bearing bores. Will your rear axle work with a semi-floating bearing and seal arrangement like this? The axle shafts would require custom building for your axle's width and differential offset if you're using the '53 axle and Spicer 18 transfer case. Another approach that I believe is perfectly acceptable and much simpler would be an 11" x 2" rear drum brake conversion in conjunction with disc front brakes. This is a time-honored approach that Jeep and the aftermarket have taken. There are conversion kits and numerous other parts readily available from sources like this one: http://www.the-jeep-guy.com/brakes.htm. The only caveat with drum rear brakes is drying out the brakes after stream fording. This would be less pronounced with disc front brakes and 11" x 2" drum rear. Jeep CJs used 11" x 2" drum brakes to good effect in the '70s. Note the other upgrades suggested for disc front/drum rear brakes, including a properly sized dual master cylinder and booster (each specifically designed for disc front/drum rear brakes if disc/drum brakes are your choice), a proportioning valve if needed, an 11" x 2" drum brake conversion kit for the rear, etc. Think "system" upgrade...Make sure the master cylinder is ported for disc/drum brakes if you do disc front/drum rear brakes. If you do the 4-wheel disc brakes, make sure the master cylinder is correctly ported for disc brakes front and rear. You don't want drum brake residual pressure to cause drag on disc brake pads and rotors. Moses
  9. Hi, Carlos...The wiring diagram is graphic. You have a 35-way connector to the ECU. Keep that illustration in mind... Devices like the TBI injector are KEY ON hot. Typically, an ECU/ECM/PCM controller does not provide "hot" voltage but rather completes the ground to these D.C. devices. If the Orange lead (common) is KEY ON hot and provides a clean voltage reading, your aim is to verify whether the Green wire to solenoid and Light Blue to the injector are completing the ground. Disconnect the Light Blue and Green leads from the injector and EGR solenoid. If the Orange leads each read KEY ON hot with your voltmeter, you should be able to activate/test either device with a simple jumper wire to ground. If these devices each operate normally with a brief, temporary direct ground at the Light Blue and Green contacts, and if the injector is still not flowing fuel, then the ECU lead is not completing the ground properly. You're testing in this way: 1) When isolated, the Orange lead (common to both the EGR and the fuel injector) should be a KEY ON hot wire. Test the Orange (common) lead for voltage with the key in the ON position. If the Orange (common) lead provides KEY ON voltage, grounding the Light Blue or Green pole at each of these devices should activate them. Do this only briefly, as they normally operate at approximately half the KEY ON voltage. Do not damage the devices. 2) If you have KEY ON Orange wire voltage to each device, disconnect the plugs at the EGR solenoid and injector. Use your meter as a jumper between the Light Blue and Green plug pins and each device. Read the Light Blue and Green wires for both voltage and ground resistance. What do you get? 3) With the device plugs disconnected from the EGR solenoid and injector, check for voltage and also check for ground continuity on the Light Blue and Green plug connectors. Test with the KEY ON—you may need to crank the engine to get an injector pulse signal. 3) Connect or jumper the KEY ON Orange leads to the EGR solenoid and the injector. If grounding the EGR solenoid (Green wire contact on the solenoid) and injector (Light Blue wire contact on the injector) directly at the device activates the EGR and the injector, check the wiring continuity and resistance between these devices and their ECU contacts. On the 35-Way ECU connector, Pin 5 is the EGR signal. Pin 21 of the 35-way connector is the injector signal. (The plug is not easy to reach for continuity testing!) See whether there is too much resistance in the injector lead to the ECU. If not, the ECU itself could be at fault. Rebuilt ECU units are available if you isolate the problem to the injector's ECU signal. Although I always caution against taking a "parts replacement troubleshooting" approach, we have many examples of these circuits breaking down in the ECU, and thorough troubleshooting can isolate the ECU as the culprit. You could get creative and inspect the ECU like some have. Here is an example of what can go wrong in an ECU. See CSMART's great troubleshooting and photo of an ECU board burnout: Moses
  10. Wheel Stud Shoulder Length Issue

    Oh, well...Case closed, and that's what matters! Understand the issues with projects left on hold!
  11. Speed...The 22R and 22RE is fundamental for an OHC engine. Rebuilding should be no great challenge. Valve timing is the only challenge, care must be taken to confirm the valve timing with the chain tensioner in place and the crankshaft turning to TDC on the compression stroke. If you pass TDC, either 1) rotate the crankshaft backward 90 degrees or so and bring it back slowly to precise TDC or 2) rotate the crankshaft in its normal direction of rotation all the way through to TDC for #1 piston on its compression stroke. Bring the piston up slowly and do not pass TDC position. The timing chain must have tension on its pull side to accurately verify timing. This is easier done by placing the #1 piston at TDC before installing the cylinder head and making sure the crankshaft stays put while installing the timing chain and tensioner mechanism. Always confirm valve timing by rotating the crankshaft in its normal direction of rotation and slowly bringing the #1 piston to exact TDC on its compression stroke. This tensions the chain on its pull side. Always replace the timing chain and tensioner assembly during a Toyota 22R or 22RE engine build. A shop manual or aftermarket rebuild book will help with your project. On eBay, there should be many used manuals available for the 22R/22RE era Toyota engines. A guide that focuses on your Toyota model would be more detailed, something like the books How to Keep Your Toyota Pickup Alive (Muir Publications' classic) or Bentley Publishers' service manual. Of course, there are also Toyota factory service manuals from that era, though somewhat rarer and often more expensive...If you have specific, unanswered questions, I have a number of Toyota reference books and can walk you through a problem. Moses
  12. Speed...In considering why they did not use a mechanical (i.e., shift rods like a Brownie or Spicer auxiliary transmission) system for two-speed axle engagement, the answer is simple: The axle moves up-and-down independent of the frame. Vacuum, electric, hydraulic, flexing cable (like E-brake cables), or pneumatic systems allow for a flexible shift control that complies with the axle's movement over its range of travel. Look at the '57 GMC 350* electric mechanism, it may be nothing more than an adaptation on your vacuum setup. Maybe the shift mechanism parts will interchange with your vacuum setup and allow you to keep your axle center section? Take a peek and compare parts closely. As for climbing grades with a vacuum shift system, yikes! I'd want a vacuum reservoir tank on that circuit... *"Blue Chip Series" trucks were styled like Chevrolet "Task Force Series", a great cab profile with tough Pontiac V-8s and Jimmy sixes! Moses
  13. Speed...The later Eaton differential lockers are electrically actuated. Though internal shift clutches, there might be a way to go with an Eaton electric/magnetic solenoid approach. Here is some fodder to ponder: http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Vehicle/Differentials/eaton-elocker/index.htm http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Vehicle/Differentials/intellitrac-differential/index.htm http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Vehicle/Differentials/egerodisc-differentials/index.htm Also, Tremec heavy-duty truck gearboxes use mechanical linkage and also pneumatic shift mechanisms...An air actuated system (pressurized) might be an alternative. There are many hydraulic controls and air pressure controls that feature a cylinder with a control valve (cab mounted in your case). An even simpler, less involved approach might be a cable/manually activated or mechanical shift rod linkage with brackets that would serve the same function as the vacuum diaphragm. The issue with a manual control (possible prototype is the Spicer or Brownie auxiliary two-speed transmission/gearbox shifters) would be kickback and assuring that the axle holds in gear and remains engaged. For the Spicer/Brownie, there would be internal shift rod detents and other means for keeping the box in gear. We'd have to look at your Eaton 1350 internals to see whether there are built-in detents to keep the gears engaged. If not, a trip-over handle mechanism might suffice, each end of the lever's positions capable of "locking" the cable or shift rod in a fixed position until you shift again. In any case, you do not want the two-speed axle mechanism to kick out of gear by itself at the wrong time—like on a downgrade when you need compression braking! Moses
  14. Thanks for the subscription comment, Carlos... The fuel supply system passed the quick test for fuel supply. If you're concerned, verify the regulator pressure adjustment when you've solved the basic problem. The ground resistance reading is a real clue. Good diagnostics approach on your part, taking the local ground at the TBI and make it loop back to the battery negative...In the scheme of how grounding should work, the real test is just what you did: test from the device all the way to the battery ground. Superficially, this accounts for circuit continuity, but more importantly you've confirmed the resistance in that circuit. High resistance is, simply put, a source for voltage drop in a 12VDC system. You're on the right track. Consider all grounds including the ECU. I'm confident you'll find the trouble spot. This is a great illustration of how much voltage drop can take place due to a weak ground or too much ground resistance. Excess ground resistance could be from an open, a poor connection or a frayed ground lead—even at the battery. Corrosion wicking and oxidation, or corrosion at a ground connection, even as simple as the battery post to the cable terminal resistance, can drop voltage significantly. Poor surface contact between the battery cable terminal and its post can be a trouble spot. One test that works very well on the ground circuit is a lamp load test. This can be done by making a 12VDC bulb into a diagnostic tool. The bulb becomes a "device", much like any electrical drain or driven device (a heater motor, headlamps, a cigarette lighter/power supply source, etc.). The link below is to a useful paper on automotive voltage drop with mention of a simple lamp load test. The lamp load test is optimal on the ground side of a 12VDC system. You understand ohms-resistance well; voltage drop to a "device", including a simple lamp load tester, is a symptom of excessive resistance*: http://www.fluke.com/fluke/uses/comunidad/fluke-news-plus/articlecategories/electrical/diagnosevoltdrop *Causes of excess resistance can be under-capacity/smaller gauge wire, loose or corroded connections, strands of wire not making contact, crimp "butt connector" wire splice connections that create poor contact with all the wire strands, corroded wire, corroded terminals, poor grounding on a D.C. system, or virtually any resistance that increases load on a circuit. Footnote: Fluke has some remarkable, albeit expensive, test equipment. The test meters that I like can perform an insulation resistance test. The Fluke 1587 is one DMM example. The low amperage of four AA batteries is converted into very high voltage at a very low and non-destructive amperage. This source of current is sent through the circuit or wire(s) being tested, and the high voltage will find its way through leaky insulation. Depending on the probe contact points, the DMM readout provides an ohms resistance reading to either a ground point or between parallel wires, detecting a leak through the wire insulation of the two wires. (These test meters can run voltage up to the 1000V level with no other power to the circuit. Visualize running this non-destructive test on automotive 12VDC wiring harnesses with the vehicle's 12V battery disconnected. Of course, a 50V insulation resistance test setting would be plenty on sensitive circuits.) A Fluke 1587 insulation resistance test can include circuits buried inside remote wire harnesses that would otherwise require guesswork or labor intensive stripping out of wire (hot leads or grounds) within the circuits in order to make a visual inspection. The leaking voltage or voltage resistance (measured down to milli-ohms) is easily read by the meter. The lamp load test is very simple and can be done on light wire circuits with a smaller automotive bulb and on heavier circuits with a head lamp. Read through the Fluke information at the link above. The paper addresses automotive electrical systems, and at the bottom of the text you'll find a short section discussing "ground gremlins". I also hyperlinked the Fluke 1587 if you're curious about that meter. Spendy but what an instrument for chasing down hidden wiring troubles! Let us know what you find, Carlos... Moses
  15. Hi, Ian...Sounds like you have a good handle on the 6.2L. Given its unknown internal wear and previous life in a HUMVEE, the non-turbocharged approach remains prudent and best for the long haul. Boost increases heat, if we force more fuel into our diesel engines, the pyrometer soars. Turbos are a great way to compensate for altitude, though. I notice with our Ram/Cummins that vehicle speed, wind resistance (i.e., lift kit, big front bumper and way oversized tires, etc.) plus load are crucial factors around fuel efficiency. I use the torque peak as a "redline" whenever possible, and with Hypertech Max Energy tune, that is now 2100 rpm. Actually, 1600-1900 rpm has always delivered the best fuel efficiency and still does. When new and in stock form, I could squeeze a consistent 23-plus mpg running unloaded with the engine between 1600 (the OE torque peak point) and 1750 rpm. A steady 1900 was okay for 20-21 mpg. Over 1900 rpm, to this day, has the fuel efficiency dropping steadily and dramatically...the faster the crankshaft speed, the greater the fuel use. A good friend and former Jeep Engineer, very familiar with the Cummins trucks like mine, says it's all about the physics of wind resistance and speed. Too much of either will destroy fuel mileage. I believe him and have stopped looking for a Holy Grail fix to get my mileage anywhere near what the truck/engine did stock... Try capping cruise rpm to the rated torque peak point for the naturally aspirated 6.2L diesel. I try to use this formula in each gear as well. Moses
  16. Hi, Carlos...Thanks for making the conversion to Subscriber Member, we have valued your participation at the forums! So, are you getting fuel flow to the TBI unit? Try this: Unplug the TBI pressure test port plug. (Route pressurized fuel away from hot engine areas or any ignition source.) Turn on the key briefly . There should be a steady stream of fuel flowing from the port under pressure...At 14 or so PSI, you should clearly see fuel flow at the test port. If there is no fuel flowing from the TBI test port, see whether the fuel filter is clogged. It only takes one tank of fuel from a gas station that has a watery holding tank to clog a fuel filter. You can disconnect the fuel filter and again turn on the key briefly. If you see a steady stream of pressurized fuel from the disconnected (tank side) of the filter, you have a functioning fuel pump. Next, confirm that the filter is flowing fuel through it. If the fuel pump is flowing fuel and there is no fuel at the test port, you either have a clogged fuel filter or the pressure regulator is clogged. If the pressure regulator and fuel flow seem normal at the TBI pressure port, the problem could be between the regulator and injector or you may not be getting a sufficient fuel injector voltage pulse like you hinted. Make sure the fuel pressure regulator is adjusted to proper pressure (14-15 PSI). Confirm that you have fuel flow to the regulator, and the regulator is set properly. If there is no flow restriction between the regulator and injector, there should be fuel flowing from the injector if the injector has a sufficient voltage pulse and the injector's solenoid is working. Make sure voltage is correct at the injector and test the solenoid function. Injector pulse voltage is strictly from the ECU. I would want to see 5 volts here, the typical ECU output voltage to the MAP and TPS. Lower voltage can be a poor ground or loose connection with too much resistance. As we have discussed at the YJ/2.5L TBI topics, the 2.5L engine is notorious for poor grounds if you have not checked them. In particular, check the ground near the dipstick to the body/firewall (also engine to firewall and body to frame and battery). Check grounds for resistance, as resistance can lower voltage. Let's work through this Carlos. Let us know if you find the trouble source or need more information... Moses
  17. Ian...Pleased that you have this solved, the $850 (Aus) was well spent! The original, infamous GM attempt at a diesel was the 350 V-8. This was derivative of Oldsmobile castings/parts and had visible signs. As you surmise, your 6.2L must be a spin-off block design although the heads look more like 427/454 Chevrolet types. What do you think of the 6.2L naturally aspirated diesel? They were reliable though not world beaters without a turbocharger, but Gale Banks turned them on with aftermarket turbocharging. This was the original HUMVEE engine, naturally aspirated, as well. The 6.5L was an improvement, especially the turbocharged L56 design, we had a '94 Suburban 3/4-ton 4WD test vehicle (new) with that engine for a year, a great performer that never got over 17 mpg with the 4.10 gears I requested. Might have been happier with 3.73 gearing. I did like the power, the engine performed very well. Your FSJ should have tall axle gearing, which might make the 6.2L much better on fuel. You'll see what the fuel/distribution pump does for mileage. Great photos as usual, very detailed! Moses
  18. Check the Perkins website for engine data, Speed. Try this site: https://www.perkins.com/. Informative and useful data... Moses
  19. Speed...VW paddle axles and extreme positive camber changes are a fast track to a vehicle rollover, as many VW bug owners discovered... If you do the universal/manual valve, it would not be proportioning but rather a fixed PSI limit/setting. You might be able to find a "happy median" setting, but be careful discovering that set point! The factory valve is a mechanical proportioning valve with apply pressures adjusted with a lever as the chassis/axle separates in distance. Primitive, but it does work. If your cell phone takes pics, post a shot of the OE Toyota valve to help others understand the premise. Moses
  20. Speed...A Toyota 22R cylinder head can be milled or even straightened if the bow is slight. The latter is done with special fixtures and sometimes the addition of precisely controlled heat. Milling by itself will not straighten the camshaft bearing bore alignment. Bending back to straight can, and so does line boring the camshaft bearing towers and milling/boring the caps slightly. Slightly is the operative word: The timing chain/valve timing do change with milling or realigning the camshaft bore; the cam sets lower in relationship to the crankshaft centerline. This alters valve timing by shortening the distance between the camshaft sprocket and crank sprocket. Do a leakdown test on the 22R to confirm cylinder pressure. On a four-banger, cylinder balance is even more crucial. Recall my 22R engine condition concerns and leakdown test suggestion here at the forums in our 2015 discussion: I like to post the diagnostic link/topic on leak down testing (above): compression gauge versus a leak down test. I have shared this at the forums many times. Used creatively, a leakdown test is the most accurate way to assess engine condition short of a teardown. A "poor man's" leak down tester can be made from an old spark plug shell (metal shell with all porcelain removed) brazed properly to an air fitting. Gauges make it even better; OTC sell a basic tester for around $55. Moses
  21. Speed...First off, I know you're on a tight budget, thanks much for moving from a Member to Subscriber Member, we value your participation at the Forums! Understand the flywheel issue on the BOP engines. These were independent GM Division engines prior to 1977. Yes, there was a time when Buick, Oldsmobile and Pontiac had their own design and engineering status. Some of us remember that far back. Prior to mid-'sixties, these engine divisions were even more autonomous, and parts interchange was even less likely. Good angle on the balancer/pulley for the air compressor. Apparently this will work? Glad you recognize the pulley load factor for the air compressor. Sounds like the 283 pulley was for a factory air conditioner/power steering engine? If so, that would be designed for a considerable load. Be careful and use good judgment here... Perkins engines are/were British and have been around for a very long time. Jeep optioned a tiny 4-cylinder type, a smoke-belching, CJ-era option. Perkins is a very common marine engine, and there is a dealership and parts network in the U.S. My writing colleague Jim Allen talks about the Jeep CJ engine application at this Four-Wheeler link: http://www.fourwheeler.com/features/1404-1966-jeep-cj-5-perkins-diesel-encyclopedia/. Here's a quote from Jim: "The Perkins 4.192 made 192 cubic inches from a 3.5-inch bore and a 5-inch stroke. It cranked out 62hp at 3,000 rpm but 143 lb-ft of torque at 1,350 rpm. It was one of Perkins’ old-school, three-main-bearing, direct-injected engines that was in production from ’58 into ’72. It was seen in the Massey-Fergusson 65 tractor and in stationary and marine applications worldwide." Old school for sure with 3-main bearings, and what a stroke length! I'm not a fan...That was an earlier engine, not clear where Perkins engineering has gone since. Check out Perkins engines online or at Wikipedia...What vehicle would get this forklift engine? Moses
  22. Wheel Stud Shoulder Length Issue

    Thanks for changing from Member to Subscriber Member, 53HiHood...We value your participation and always like the detailed post photos! Glad you shared the issue with the wheel studs, the approach you took sounds like the safe, correct fit. The serrated stud sections need to fit flush with the hub flange and not interfere with the wheel holes. The wheel must fit flush to the rotor or drum face. This becomes even more of an issue with aftermarket alloy wheels that do not have raised sections around the stud holes. Same issue applies when aftermarket wheels interfere with factory spring retaining washer/nuts: The wheel will not fit flush with the face of the rotor or drum. Most aftermarket wheels require removal of the factory-type spring retainer washer/nuts to fit the alloy wheels flush against the drum or rotor. Note: Steel wheels have raised areas around the bolt holes to create a greater range of tension against the acorn nuts; this is a time-honored safety measure. If you have the time, one of your outstanding photos would help illustrate the stud shoulder issue: Stand the new "Scout" stud next to the wrong stud from the Jeep parts supplier (with the hub flange's thickness within view). Your photos always tell the story! Moses
  23. When we were in kindergarten, it was common to take a watch apart—and not get it back together. Some of us, not content with things that no longer worked, went on to fixing things instead of just taking them apart. Toying with mechanical things versus putting things back together properly is for most a clear fork in the road. In my early childhood, I was fascinated with all things that rolled: trucks, cars, bicycles, motorized cycles, locomotives, take your pick! By age eleven, with the go kart and mini-bike craze in full swing, a neighbor built his sons a gasoline powered, wooden cart with a Briggs & Stratton lawn mower engine that had a rope starter…I was hooked. On my birthday two years later, my folks found a used Bug Kart with a bent front axle and a Clinton 2.5 horsepower two-stroke engine. I witnessed my first oxygen-acetylene welding repair when a family friend, Paul Starjack, restored the front axle with a fresh piece of new chrome-moly tubing. The task could have been a candidate for TIG, but Paul's adept skill with a gas torch made quick work of the 4130 chromoly welding repair. 55 years ago, I had a Bug Kart similar to this one. Mine came with a bent front axle tube. Watching a skilled welder replace that tube with a fresh 4130 piece taught me the the merits of welding! The end result and a fresh coat of paint made my cart look and run great. By fourteen, other mentors crossed my mechanical path. Joe Bruns ran a traditional postwar garage at Gardnerville, across the street from the Hancock gas station where I held my first job. An $8 street legal Cushman/Allstate scooter occupied my time and money that summer, and when the magneto would not fire, Mr. Bruns taught me the intricacies of a condenser on his grease-covered work bench. The dimly lit, acrid oil wafting shop, full of old cars like a Graham-Paige, a Willys-Knight tow truck, a Hudson Terraplane and a Packard, captured my imagination. This beautifully restored 1955 Allstate (Cushman) Deluxe scooter is the 'as new' version of the $8 "beater" that I bought in the summer of 1963 at Gardnerville, Nevada. Mine came with a rod knock and white paint job that looked like it had been applied with a broom. Nevada's Scooter Law enabled riding at 35 mph maximum on highways with a "basic speed law". It was not uncommon for cars and trucks to legally pass scooters at 100 mph on Highway 395. (Photo courtesy of the owner's posting online...Thanks, it's gorgeous, and the mountain backdrop looks like Carson Valley!) I grew up around older Buicks and Packards in our family, which drew me to the C.O.D. Garage (Chevrolet/Buick/Jeep® dealership) at Minden, Nevada. The dirt field across the main drag was the dealership's parking lot for Depression Era, 'forties and 'fifties cars and trucks that made their last run into Carson Valley on a tow hook. Rolling into valley from California and nearby rural Nevada communities, these vehicles had died unceremoniously from overheating, cracked blocks, throwing connecting rods or frying transmission and axle gears. I worked at the community’s service stations under the tutelage of full-service mechanics, in those years men who performed breaker point tune-ups, chassis work, tire busting and detailed lubrication and fluid changes. An oscilloscope tune-up was the hallmark of the era, and working at Bud Berrum’s Minden Chevron Station schooled me at vehicle light service and lube room repairs. This would prove ground school for my early automotive trade employment as a light and medium duty truck fleet mechanic. From age 14 to 18, I had my share of four-wheeled “project” vehicles plus numerous trips to Werner's Machine Shop at Carson City. Bill Werner smiled each time I showed up with a Ford flathead V-8 block. Several of these blocks failed the test for machining and landed in the iron scrap pile. Most often, they had cracks from freezing or cylinder wall weaknesses that opened up during the boring process. Bill was relieved when I moved to mid-'fifties Chevy small-block OHV V-8s. There were many other “teachers”. My Douglas High School Ag and Welding instructor, Mr. Gray, taught me the foundation skills for welding that led to my lifetime interest in metallurgy and all forms of welding and brazing processes. The Odom brothers at the East Bay, George Zirkle at the Nevada City NAPA machine shop, veteran truck fleet mechanic colleagues and service pros, machinists and chassis/alignment experts each deserve their due. When I served an apprenticeship with Local 3 of the Operating Engineers Union, old hands taught me the new and old school repair, welding and operator’s skills around heavy equipment…To all of these folks and any not named here, I am grateful. The learning was typically hands on, often accompanied by patient discussion, and I looked over many shoulders before performing work myself. Years later, after 15 years of hands-on professional work as a journey level truck fleet mechanic, motorcycle tech and 4x4 restorer, I worked at Cunningham GMC/Pontiac in El Cajon, California, representing the service department at the General Motors Burbank Training Center and bringing that information home to be shared with the dealership's techs. Just prior to working for the Cunningham family and fresh out of the University of Oregon, I had my first taste of teaching at the San Diego Job Corps. That was my original stint of “giving back” through teaching, passing along those years of exposure to top professionals. My next step along the path was journalism, writing technical articles and columns for a broad range of enthusiast trade magazines and newspapers. Learning to Teach When I taught at the Job Corps in the early ‘eighties, the breaker point ignition era was barely ended. Electronic fuel injection was the lofty undertaking of German engineers at Bosch. That quickly changed, and by the mid-‘eighties, American vehicle manufacturers brought the internal combustion engine back from the edge of emissions extinction with the use of EFI and electronic spark management systems. All of us went back to the drawing board, up the learning curve, and became familiar with the new electronic technology. I held California smog equipment Installer and Inspection licenses during that period. Learning EFI/spark management required a foundation at automotive mechanics and the willingness to read. I was writing simultaneously to the tune of 880 published pages of magazine articles per year by 1989 (not to be confused with manuscript pages). 1990-1998 became a period of book projects alongside my continuing flow of magazine and newspaper assignments each month. Consulting to 4x4 truck, Jeep® and SUV manufacturers, plus new book editions, involved even more writing. After an intensive career at photojournalism, tech column writing, book authorship and building magazine 4x4 projects, I took a detour and returned to the classroom from 1999-2004, five teaching and administrator contract years. Working with the Rite of Passage program, first as an Automotive/Diesel Technologies instructor then as the Director of Vocational Training for four Rite of Passage campuses, we taught automotive, welding, construction trades and IT. Within the Rite of Passage training process, I was as much a student as teacher. Sure, I brought over three decades of profession level trade skills to the classroom, but my effectiveness at teaching was only as good as the delivery. What I quickly discovered in the era just before the onslaught of internet information, was that students without a clear direction and foundation in a subject were as apt to “take the watch apart” as to fix it. When left to their own devices, some students were perfectly happy dismantling mechanical things with no sense for how to put them back together—and not an inkling of academic ambition nor the curiosity to read a manual or textbook! Lectures or audio visual training tapes could easily put a non-invested student to sleep. These young adults provided the humbling lesson that without context and a drive to learn, human beings are capable of remaining kindergarten level performers forever. And that pre-internet learning environment was merely a portent of things to come, heralding Toffler's glorious, consumer driven Information Era. Along Came the Internet The fledgling internet and its information exchange showed promise. Maybe the Tofflers' predictions in their 2006 book Revolutionary Wealth were true. Alvin and Heidi Toffler predicted that the internet's wealth of “free” information would lead to a society of consumers who were less dependent upon paying for services and far more self-reliant. The emerging age would be a virtual barter system of freebie facts and answers meeting consumer needs, essentially a way to circumvent the increasingly pervasive co-dependency on corporations and professional service outlets. This idealized view of the internet, a virtual blueprint for opting out of consumer dependency, was the optimal solution to the rising costs of consumer services. In fact, outsourcing and subletting labor costs, using automotive “professional” services as just one example, have skyrocketed over the last dozen years. At North America, there is no more glaring example of consumer dependency than the automotive consumer market. Imagine paying $75,815 for a new, decked out Ram 4x4 with a Cummins 6.7L diesel. Now add to that the maintenance costs at the local dealership. CANBus troubleshooting and diagnostics equipment, exotic transmission filling and draining methods plus a host of other "specialty equipment" requirements compel many DIY consumers to reluctantly creep back into the dealerships' service lanes. Once the warranty period ends on the vehicle, consumers often try the nearly as expensive independent shops, aware that second tier aftermarket diagnostic equipment may not be up to date. A dealership's labor rate can be $110 per hour or higher. Independent shops are at least $75-$90 per hour. So given these conditions and the potential information available online, what if you could get diagnostic and troubleshooting information—or even actual how-to repair steps—for free online. Yes, how about gleaning information gratuitously placed before your eyes by simply participating at a free forum? Many believe this is possible, and to such an extent that they cannot envision paying for any kind of automotive information. Of course, we do want to avoid the high cost of labor and limited parts choices, i.e., the additional and arbitrary cost for dealership provided parts. Do we also expect to become independent mechanics without scaling any kind of learning curve or paying for schooling? As a point of interest, aside from earning a Pac-Ten university four-year degree with Dean's List honors and all the textbook costs that entailed, my library of classic and contemporary professional automotive factory and trade service manuals, plus a dozen welding instruction and metallurgy books, would today cost somewhere in the neighborhood of $7,500. I bought the Tofflers' book as an audio CD version and played it in my shop while performing professional restoration work on vintage transmissions, steering gears, engines, engine peripherals and axles. The book's theme was captivating, suggesting that we could be energy independent (off the grid) and consumer self-sufficient, sidestepping the endless grind of societal consumerism in America. Pondering just how well that would work with automotive service or IT needs, it took little thought after four decades in the automotive trade (when this book came out) to realize that bartering information, or even information in itself, is not enough to get the job done! So Where Do You Get Your “Free” Information? For automotive service work around sophisticated powertrains with 8-speed automatic transmissions or variable cylinder EFI/MPI systems, where do you barter for your free service information? Consider the bevy of diagnostic tools needed to service a vehicle and the $200-plus CD set that makes up the factory service manual for a particular model. Do you know a trained service professional who has spent $10,000 or more on equipment and data and wants to freely offer that investment to total strangers surfing the internet's Google Search engine? According to the Tofflers theory, the model would apply better to pouring a garden foot path and needing information on how to set forms. This kind of information can be found at the Lowe’s or Home Depot professional contractors desk. It’s not critical, "permitted" work and does not require meeting code. Seldom will anyone get hurt by a DIY foot path project or improperly laid sidewalk pavers. These two retailers will gladly offer free information since they will be providing the materials you need for this job. Now let’s fast forward to your automotive project. A motor vehicle is built to SAE, DOT, NHTSA and EPA standards. Whether an owner elects to honor the EPA requirements, the SAE, DOT and NHTSA standards for brakes, steering and safe suspension are something not to be ignored. There are sanctioning bodies like ASE and dealership tech training programs, apprenticeships, military training schools and college trade programs intended to support these professional standards for automotive service work. Why? Simple: Because your life and the lives of family members and others on the road depend upon vehicles that perform safely and reliably. This includes brakes, tires, chassis members, steering, suspension, the engine/powertrain, axles and electrical/electronic systems. So that begs the question: Where do you get your automotive service recommendations? Exactly who is at that forum with years of professional experience, mentoring, college level courses, military training schools, apprentice training or dealership training? If they have that level of schooling and experience, why are they at the forum giving away information for free? The Toffler paradigm may apply to shoveling and forming the ditch for a garden path footing or macramé, but do you really want to fix your brakes or troubleshoot that engine issue without a service manual, a basic knowledge of automotive mechanics or a “mentor” with some trade experience? I taught adult education level automotive and diesel mechanics plus welding for seven years. As of this month, I have a half-century of professional experience at mechanics, yet I still pull a professional trade manual or “FSM” off the shelf for any work I perform on my vehicles. Who’s Paying for My Experience? When Facebook and LinkedIn became supposed “musts” for any professional, including automotive based magazine publishers. I willingly stepped up and established a Facebook page for 4WD Mechanix Magazine and signed on to LinkedIn. When I shared at Facebook that my HD video streaming rental for Jeep® YJ/TJ Wrangler and XJ Cherokee brake work was available at Vimeo On Demand, colleagues derided me for “spamming” my page. A Jeep® club member said that she had no intention of paying for such information! The streaming one-hour long rental with 30-day access had a $1.99 fee. Meanwhile, my commercial training videos under contract to major corporations were generating fees from $275-$450 per edited minute of video. As a book author with Bentley Publishers, I generate royalty income, and informed consumers have placed a value on the content. All of my Jeep® titles received manufacturers’ part numbers and endorsements from Chrysler (passing legal and engineering approval). Similarly the GM truck book and Ford F-truck book each received part numbers and endorsements from GM Motorsport and Ford SVO, respectively. The Jeep® Owner’s Bible™ became a book trade “best seller”, enjoying the largest volume of sales for a Bentley Publishers book to date. Then came the internet digital publishing world. In the internet realm, everything is presumed to be “free”. For the first seven years of 4WD Mechanix Magazine, I provided a massive quantity of free information to faceless readers and viewers. My expenses and time compensation were paid by advertising/sponsorship from major aftermarket vendors and manufacturers, and this came at a high price. I continually produced new product promotions, product installation how-to videos and on location event videos on behalf of each sponsor. Evidence: Scroll through the 400-plus videos available for free at the magazine website. This intensive time allocation means continually currying advertising/sponsorship revenue streams while satisfying the needs and expectations of forum readers and the magazine’s viewer/readers. Sponsor coverage has included annual treks to the Moab EJS for bell-to-bell filming with a video camera, filming Tierra Del Sol 4x4 Safari, filming the Off-Road Expo, filming each year's SEMA Show, filming at King of the Hammers, supporting a tire sponsor at Baja plus several trips over the Rubicon Trail—on foot with a video camera. For consumers these events are exciting and adventurous. For a focused videographer on assignment, it's all seen through the lens...When advertising revenue flows, it always comes at a price. Paying Dues Sponsors want things like traffic numbers with a demographic group's affinity for their products. Consumers need reliable information with vital facts about their technical issues. Eventually, it dawned on me that the folks who need to value the forum exchanges and answers to pressing technical issues and how-to instructional are the end users and consumers. Yes, all things Toffler should not be free! To be there for consumers' needs, engaged in a useful dialogue at the forums and magazine, doing research and making my extensive library and a half-century of professional experience available, the forum participants need to place a value on the content. We all find the anonymity of free internet content opportune, surfing away, seldom aware of the information source, quickly moving on if we're not immediately satisfied with the content. For improving your skills, however, we need a dialogue...and you need to make a modest investment. Unless you grow organic produce or have some kWh of solar energy for my welder, $12 (U.S.) per year is a sensible trade off. My personal 3,200-plus topic/replies, a number that just keeps increasing, is proof that I'm willing to share. This is the reason for the shift to a Subscriber Membership at the forums. To deliver the value and content that members deserve, I have pared down on advertising and narrowed the field of sponsors to those who best identify with the consumer interests and direct needs of our forum members. The subscriber platform benefits those who gain most: consumer members! So, I’m banking on subscriber users valuing the forums content. Internet searches can lead elsewhere for “free” information. But if you need my experience, my access to an extensive library and my earnest interest in helping you build the safest, best performing 4x4 possible, then justify the $12 per year (the cost of one replacement oil filter for a 5.9L Cummins engine!) to get your questions answered. Help make the forums an interactive learning community that respects your desire to fix things properly. Join us! —Moses Ludel
  24. Members and Guests...I just completed the article and HD video tutorial below. This topic and an entire series at the magazine are important to your safety and intended to provide an overview of the best practices for brake work. There is a lack of professional level brake service and brake tool information at YouTube and elsewhere online...This video and post-editing took considerable time to produce, and I'm providing it for free to our Forums community and those interested in finding the latest tools and proven techniques for performing safe and reliable brake work!—Moses Ludel In this in-depth how-to tutorial, viewers are encouraged to look over my shoulder as I replicate steel brake tubing on a rare classic car. Whether your DIY or professional shop's project is an off-road rock crawler, a 4x4 truck restoration or a rare classic car in need of a pristine, original looking brake system, brake tube fabrication requires high standards and a professional approach. Repairing and crafting steel brake pipes has become a regular part of automotive service work, and a growing list of professional and DIY/consumer level brake tools can now do the job better than ever! Caution: The HD 1080P video's length is one hour and sixteen minutes. When your favorite cable television series or live sports event is not airing, while the rest of the family slumbers, fix yourself a cup of coffee or tea (regular or decaf as required) and adjust your computer chair. This how-to tutorial takes a while and for good reason: your safety and the reliability of a braking system depend upon doing the job right! This chassis project started with the typical rust and corrosion expected on a vintage car like a 1957 Chrysler New Yorker convertible. Body and frame rust is common to neglected classic cars and trucks. Brake tubing is also susceptible to rust. The menacing use of salt and brine to de-ice highways can impact newer vehicles in much the same way, and brake work in cold climates now includes tubing replacement as an expected service procedure. Loosening corroded fittings requires special care. The small chain wrench shown can usually turn a stubborn flare nut loose without damaging its corners or collapsing the fitting. When parts must be reused, use the right tools. These two tools of choice for this challenging, high stakes project were from S.U.R.&R. The turret punch manual FT351 flaring tool is somewhat similar to other turret punch/adapter tools with die clamps. The FT351 does a superior double-flaring job and leaves no marring or marks on the tube...Tested for the first time on this brake tube restoration project is the S.U.R.&R. PFT409 hydraulic pistol grip flaring tool. This flare tool offers the fast and repeatable flares attained by several other quality flare tools that we have tested. Notably, however, where this tool moves ahead of the pack is the preservation and protection of the tubing shanks during the flaring process. The PFT409 did not leave any kind of marks or blemishes on the tube while repeatedly forming optimal 45-degree inverted double flares on 0.028" steel brake tube. For restoring this car's brake tubes, few other flare tools can meet the high standard of performance or quality finished look attained with the PFT409 from S.U.R.&R. The S.U.R.&R. tube straightener is a cost-effective alternative to precision roller straighteners. Careful use and a good eye or straight edge for referencing can produce excellent results at a fraction of the cost for high-end tube straighteners. For those not doing a large volume of tube work, this tool will work well. At right is the S.U.R.&R. RM69 inside reamer. This tool is sharp and well shaped. For our preferred inside and outside deburring, we use the tool available from Inline Tube. The aim is a burr-free, square tube end with slight chamfers. An outside chamfer helps the tube form against the punch adapters. The most impressive and unique feature of the S.U.R.&R. pistol grip hydraulic PFT409 package is the smooth channeled dies (used with the smaller tubing sizes). These dies do not leave a mark on 3/16" or 1/4" O.D. brake tubing. Despite the smooth channels, the yoke screw clamping force is sufficient to prevent the tube from sliding. Other manufacturers cut spiral or ring grooves in the die's channel to prevent tube movement. That approach mars and blemishes the shank of the tube, often nicking or cutting through the zinc electroplating on new steel tubing. Damaging the electroplating can make original equipment style steel replacement tubing vulnerable to rust. The number one cause of brake tubing damage (aside from physical pounding and tearing on a 4x4 rock crawler) is rust. Why hurry the process along? We opted for the S.U.R.&R. PFT409 for this critical and cosmetically demanding tube flaring project! Finished tube flares were a consistent 45-degree inverted double flare. (This has been the most common flare type used in the U.S. although that traditional has yielded to DIN bubble flares in some applications.) This 3/16" size steel tubing bends properly with the correct bender. The tight 180-degree return bends on this brake system are unusual and require both patience and the right tools. The HD video tutorial, filmed at Moses Ludel's shop/studio, provides each step from a 25' coil of bulk steel tube and a bag of new flare fittings to the finished and installed custom brake pipes. When there is no pre-formed CNC replacement tubing available and the stakes are as high as this rare classic car, the right tools and techniques are crucial. Installing the completed tubes requires use of a quality flare nut wrench like the X-Force design from AGS Company. New replacement brake hoses should be installed with new retainer clips and fresh brake grade copper sealing washers. These are inexpensive measures, and the clips are available from Dorman, Summit Racing and other vendors. Quality brake parts sources can provide copper brake hose junction washers. Once tubes and hoses are firmly in place, all fittings and hose connections should be torqued to specification. A set of crow's foot tubing flare nut sockets is valuable and available for this final step. For more details on the S.U.R.&R. PFT409 hydraulic flaring tool and other brake service tools visit: https://www.surrauto.com To see this article and video, plus other articles with videos, visit the magazine site. Start here: http://www.4wdmechanix.com/video-series-how-to-flare-automotive-brake-tube-fuel-lines-and-cooler-tubing/ http://www.4wdmechanix.com/how-to-fabricating-restoring-and-repairing-hydraulic-brake-lines/
  25. Is the divorced unit from a Dodge? I-H? What model/make/application is this NP205?