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Moses Ludel

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About Moses Ludel

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    http://www.4WDmechanix.com

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  • Gender
    Male
  • Location
    Reno Area...Nevada
  • Interests
    Family, destination four-wheeling and dual-sport motorcycling, photography, videography, fly-fishing, anthropology, automotive mechanics and welding/metallurgy.

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  1. Things are looking up there, Speed! The mileage is impressive, and that's the end game with an Explorer...Good progress! Moses
  2. Hi, Monty! Interesting...So, you're applying vacuum to the port at 10 o'clock? It would seem that you need the option of AIR and DEF functioning at the same time. Otherwise, you would have either defrost only or heat (floorboard) only. If AIR is ambient air ducting through the heater core, that would allow heat without the blower on. Typically, the flaps open with vacuum, not with pressurized air. What you would want is to have vacuum apply to the defroster flap with the DEF pushed in. You would want air to flow from the floorboard vents with the AIR pushed in. That should help determine which port on the switch is the vacuum source. Your vacuum supply source should be vacuum from the engine (manifold), a constant source that is either OFF or directed to the AIR or DEF flaps, depending upon the position of the vacuum switch. Make sense? I'll watch for your reply... Moses
  3. Ian, this is fascinating! The derivative Jeep models and even full departures from U.S. models are really something. I like the Combat 6 (Falcon 144/170 powered!) and Nissan diesel engine options. Apparently, the Australian division was given autonomy to serve the country's usage needs. Your CJ10 (J10 'Tonner') and other models look stout and rugged in the marketing photos. There's a bent on utility much like the U.S. vehicles in the day...I like the pragmatism in the design features and continued build of models that worked well—like the CJ-7. Thanks for sharing...Others should really find the information interesting. Jeep had an early presence in Australian. The tall hood CJ-3B happens to be my favorite flat-fender! Moses
  4. I'm rooting for Cummins, too, Ian...I publicized the R2.8L turbo-diesel with enthusiasm, including interviews with Cummins' Steve Sanders. Cummins was confident of an E.O. number from California, as Chevrolet got one on the E-Rod crate V-8 engine (which likely had a domestic vehicle installation prototype with EPA approval). Cummins was actually breaking ground with the effort to approve a crate engine without an EPA vehicle donor. The R2.8L engine meets Euro current and go-forward emissions requirements, way in excess of U.S. standards for Cummins' E.O. attempt, which initially targeted a 1999 or earlier chassis application—just to assure a lower bar for emissions levels. Cummins planned to proceed from there, gradually including later chassis like the Jeep JK and such. Several non-compliance ("49-State") examples are in the field now. You'd like the installs on an FJ62 chassis, FJ40s, Land Rovers and a TJ Wrangler or two. Moses
  5. Speed...Sorry you're health has been a challenge. Rusted bolts can be a huge challenge. For those who have the stamina and patience to wade their way through rusty and broken bolt repairs, here are a couple of useful links. This is HD video coverage on tools specific to this chore: 1) https://www.4wdmechanix.com/otc-tools-how-to-quickly-remove-broken-manifold-studs/ [This demonstration is useful.] 2) https://www.4wdmechanix.com/2018-sema-show-new-products/ [2018 SEMA Show new products; there are a couple of new bolt extracting tools buried in this tour.] Moses
  6. Hi, Ian...The engineer sounds like the California model for Clean Air Resources Board. Engine swaps are legal if two basic criteria are met: 1) engine must be same year or new than chassis and in the same emissions class and 2) the tailpipe tests must show emissions at or below the emissions standard for the original engine in good operating condition. If the swap is legal, the owner takes the vehicle to a "Referee Station" for an inspection around the engine conversion. At California and other states that use this standard, you cannot swap a Class 2 or 3 engine (basically from a heavier light-duty truck or a medium duty GVW truck) into a Class 1 emissions vehicle (a car, SUV or light truck to 6000 pounds GVWR). Our 1999 Jeep XJ Cherokee 4WD is a Class 1 emissions vehicle by this standard: ≤ 6,000 Class 1: ≤ 6,000 lbs Light Duty ≤ 10,000 lbs Light Duty ≤ 10,000 lbs 10,000 Class 2: 6,001-10,000 lbs 14,000 Class 3: 10,001-14,000 lbs Medium Duty 10,001-26,000 lbs Medium Duty 10,001-19,500 lbs 16,000 Class 4: 14,001-16,000 lbs 19,500 Class 5: 16,001-19,500 lbs 26,000 Class 6: 19,501-26,000 lbs Light Heavy Duty 19,501-26,000 lbs 33,000 Class 7: 26,001-33,000 lbs Heavy Duty ≥ 26,001 lbs Heavy Duty ≥ 26,001 lbs > 33,000 Class 8: > 33,000 lbs This stipulation made it impossible to install an Isuzu/GM 3.9L four-cylinder diesel engine into our gasoline XJ Cherokee. (Diesel engine to a gasoline vehicle was not the problem, the engine's use by GVW was the issue.) However, I could put a VW, Volvo passenger car or BMW turbo-diesel engine in this chassis. (Why bother, right?) The requirements are very weird, as the Isuzu engine is relatively clean burning and emissions compliant, but the chassis applications are Emissions Class 2 and 3 trucks. I wanted a 50-State legal result. Advance Adapters was willing to prototype a swap kit, but we agreed that such a venture needed to yield a 50-State legal package. As a point of interest, Cummins is caught in a conundrum with its R2.8L turbo-diesel crate engine. The engine meets requirements for emissions but has no U.S./EPA approved use in a motor vehicle. (Cummins did a joint venture concept vehicle with Nissan. They installed this engine in a Frontier pickup with great results, but the model never went into production, which would have resulted in EPA approval and a legal emissions prototype for certifying the crate engine as a "2019 Nissan Frontier" (Class 1 emissions) engine...Cummins has been trying to certify this crate engine on its own merits to market as a California/50-State legal crate engine package. The California ARB has yet to approve or issue an E.O. number on this engine. The process is in stalemate at present. Moses
  7. This would explain the pedal pumping after setting. Another advantage with the residual valve will be protection against air/moisture absorption into the wheel cylinders when parked. The cups are not sealing snugly, which allows air seepage into the cylinders. This leads to corrosion in the wheel cylinder. Brake fluid is hygroscopic.
  8. On that dual reservoir master cylinder, the disc brake circuit does not hold residual pressure in the circuit. (Disc brakes do not require residual pressure. Late systems use a very slight amount of residual pressure in the 2 PSI range to align the pads gently against the rotors.) If the front disc brake port does not have a residual valve behind the flare seat, your brake wheel cylinder cups will not stay expanded when the brakes are released. Normally, with a drum brake master cylinder, the residual valve(s) will hold 10-12 psi in the lines with the pedal released. This is way less pressure than the shoe return spring tension, so the brake shoes retract completely. The pressure is simply to keep the lips of the rubber wheel cylinder cups/rubber seals expanded and sealing against the bores of the wheel cylinders. If there is no residual pressure, the cups will collapse and allow fluid to seep past these cup seals. The symptom is leaking wheel cylinders. Presumably, you have the disc circuit feeding your front brakes? See whether you have leaks at the front wheel cylinders. There is an add-on residual valve kit available from Wilwood: Wilwood 260-13784 Red 10 PSI Residual Pressure Valve with Fittings. Note the 10 PSI details: https://www.wilwood.com/Search/PartNoSearch?q=260-13784 Retail listing at Speedway Motors: https://www.speedwaymotors.com/Wilwood-260-13784-Red-10-PSI-Residual-Pressure-Valve-with-Fittings,233816.html?sku=83526013784&utm_medium=CSEGoogle&utm_source=CSE&utm_campaign=CSEGOOGLE&gclid=CjwKCAjw96fkBRA2EiwAKZjFTZfzhD5bHQQW52MUkfip0KrI7uiA-8G-AXfYXn9p53xarubLoyC89hoCrZIQAvD_BwE This kit enables adding a residual valve at a fluid line rather than fiddling with the master cylinder's port flare seat. You'll get the idea when you see the valves. There is also a 2 PSI valve available, but this is for a disc brake circuit. Modern disc brake systems do use a very low amount of residual pressure to keep pads closer to the rotor.
  9. The 4-wire should be a heated O2 sensor. With the wires paired, this sensor is probably not heating electrically and fluctuates between warm-up cycle tuning (think of this as a choke slightly on) to normal. That would account for the Check Light cycling as well. See whether you can fix just the four wires to that O2 sensor and make it work as intended. Sounds like the sensor thinks the engine is always cold and enriches the mix as you suspect.
  10. Have you been riding the Honda snow bike this winter? The snow pack at Squaw Valley is huge, annual rate of snowfall in the 50-foot range for the Sierra, cold temps holding, fortunately, or we'd see major flooding. Spring runoff will be touch and go. Squaw expects to stay open to July 7th this year! Watching your pattern (which is sometimes ours), you've gotten clobbered in the NW. Our old hometown of Oakridge had a week of major power outages, Highway 58 closed for days...
  11. Ian...Great truck for a period look, function and reasonable modifications...What is the bed source? It has practical side-loading ability...Asian? The head rack and front bumper should provide serious protection. Do you plan to tuck a winch behind the front bumper? What is the curb (unloaded, on board fuel but no cab occupants) weight for the truck at this stage? Is the engineer with the vehicle registration agency? How does such a "referee" (California CARB engine swaps) interact with the agencies? Moses
  12. Speed...The SM465 has a compound low of 6.55:1; the NP435L and NP435E versions have the sought after compound low of 6.68:1; the sought after SM420 has a 7.05:1 compound low gear. There are taller geared versions of the NP435 and SM420. I believe all SM465 units are 6.55:1 in 1st gear. Always check the 1st gear ratio before buying any of these units. The NP435 dates to 1962, so there are applications with an E-brake on the output end. 'Sixties and even later medium duty truck applications of the NP435 and SM465 should turn up an E-brake at the output. Here is a nice rundown of the NP435 applications. I-H and GM medium-duty models would be a place to start: https://www.hemmings.com/magazine/hmn/2015/11/New-Process-435-Four-speed-Transmission/3749160.html The Clark transmission is a good default position. They were found in trucks similar to yours and work well for their intended usage. I serviced and drove that early 'fifties I-H medium duty with the RD406 inline six and Clark 5-speed. It worked perfectly fine and kept my double-clutching skills sharp. Higher compression with a long stroke vintage engine design has always been dicey. Running a maximum of 8:1, possibly 8.5:1, seems plenty for any of these engines. Your rpm ceiling makes perfect sense, 3000 rpm is well up there, though I'm sure vintage racers reached 4,500-5,000 rpm. For how long? Anyone's guess. Moses
  13. Ian, I'm sure your Aussie Willys 4WD Pickup will draw much attention as those miles accumulate!
  14. This is a good question, Speed. You need enough clutch master cylinder piston stroke and pedal travel to displace enough fluid to release the clutch. The clutch slave/release bearing must travel far enough to move the clutch cover pressure plate away from the clutch disk. If your pedal hits the floor too soon, without displacing enough fluid, the clutch fingers will not go far enough to release the clutch. Your concern here would be pedal travel. Do you need the pedal to travel further? If so, a longer pedal pushrod would help, and that would raise the pedal further from the floorboard. In any case, when the pedal is fully released, there should be a slight gap between the pedal pushrod and the clutch master cylinder piston. This enables the clutch master cylinder's piston to fully retract, which enables the clutch master cylinder to displace enough fluid when the clutch pedal moves the pushrod over its full range of travel. Another overlooked possibility is a clutch master cylinder piston seal that simply does not hold fluid and pressure properly. Fluid could be seeping past the piston seal and not moving through the hydraulic line into the clutch hydraulic release bearing. This happens with brake master cylinders as well. Glad you're working out the rest of the vehicle's wrinkles... Moses
  15. Ian...The windshield installation looks fantastic, this involved two-piece glass and divider is a vintage cue. Worth the extensive effort, the windshield gives the truck an authentic "look"... Quite a project, you persevered! Nice work...The tray/flatbed deck at the back should do it...Is the powertrain ready for the long haul? Moses
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