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Moses Ludel

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About Moses Ludel

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    http://www.4WDmechanix.com

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    Reno Area...Nevada
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    Family, destination four-wheeling and dual-sport motorcycling, photography, videography, fly-fishing, anthropology, automotive mechanics and welding/metallurgy.

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  1. Carlos...Glad you followed the Pin 21 signal and Light Blue wire lead. An extra pair of eyes was likely helpful, too. Nothing has been lost but time... So you confirmed that Orange is KEY ON hot and the Light Blue lead provides the ground to the injector? Did you try jumping the Light Blue lead directly to a good ground point to see whether the injector flows fuel? If grounding the Light Blue lead operates the injector, the injector is good, and you're missing the ground signal from Pin 21. I would try this: 1) If Orange is KEY ON hot, unplug the injector leads. Make a jumper wire using a low amperage (5-10 amp) inline fuse to protect the device. Run this jumper to the injector's Orange pole. 2) Take another jumper and ground the injector pole where the Light Blue wire attaches. 3) When you turn the key to the ON position and hear the fuel pump running, there should be fuel flow from the injector. Do this briefly to prevent flooding the engine. This approach would confirm that the injector itself is working but the Light Blue ground wire is not getting an ECU signal at Pin 21— as you suspect. The only things that could keep the Pin 21 from sending a signal are 1) your suspicions about a burned circuit on the ECU or 2) the long shot that the crankshaft position sensor signal is weak. The CPS issue is unlikely because you are getting spark, which also requires a CPS (crankshaft position sensor) signal. The sensor is readily accessible at the bellhousing. You could check the CPS for dirt, debris or a poor connection. Sometimes rear main seal oil will reach the sensor. If there is nothing to indicate a problem with the CPS or wiring, and if the injector circuit wires are all intact, and if the fuel pump relay is new or clearly functioning properly at each pole, then a rebuilt ECU would be a worthwhile investment. A number of forum members have narrowed their 2.5L TBI system troubles to the ECU. This is a module that sees a considerable amount of work, load and vibration over time. They do fail. Moses
  2. Jeepdog...So you're confident that the end play/bearing preload are correct? Is there radial play (runout) between the mainshaft's nose and the clutch/input gear's recessed bearing? If you grab the mainshaft (not that easy to do when installed) and pull it up-and-down at the area of the 3rd/4th synchronizer, can you feel radial play or see any rocking between the input gear and mainshaft? Or do the two shafts stay in straight alignment? I asked about the pilot bearing at the rear of the crankshaft. Does it support the nose of the input/clutch gear properly? If not, this could allow the input gear to rock and bind the 3rd/4th gear synchronizer components. Are the 3rd/4th synchronizer keys and springs staying in place and tensioned evenly? Grab the exposed clutch release arm and wiggle it up and down. The lever should rock or pivot only slightly on the release bearing if the collar and arm fit together properly. If you feel excessive movement, fold back the arm's boot and see where the play exists. Here is a forum Warner T5 rebuild thread that might also be helpful: Let's keep pursuing this. Another transmission is not always the fix, you have a lot of time, parts and sublet labor in this installed unit. Moses
  3. Carlos...First let's confirm whether these Orange wiring circuits are hot voltage feeds or not. Using a volt-ohmmeter, with the Key On and Key Off, test the Orange wiring devices on circuits that you know are working—like the fuel pump itself. On that circuit, read the voltage for the Orange feed. We need to know whether Orange wires are hot positive feeds and what voltage they read. If they are hot leads, 12V or otherwise, then Pin 6 to the ECU should also be 12V hot when the Yellow wire activates the fuel pump relay. This test depends upon the fuel pump relay working properly. If you think the fuel pump relay is defective, try another relay in that slot. Using a volt-ohmmeter, test the Orange lead at the fuel pump relay or at the fuel injector for a path to ground. Probe one end of the meter to the Orange lead and the other end to a good ground. If there is continuity, the Orange circuit is grounded. You can test other Orange leads for continuity to ground as well. This will indicate whether all of the Orange leads are connected as shown in the wiring schematics that I provided as PDFs. Also try testing the injector Orange lead to ground with the bulkhead connector disconnected. If the Orange lead showed a path to ground before the bulkhead connector was separated but does not show a path to ground with the bulkhead connector separated, then the Orange circuit is likely grounded at the #6 Pin of the ECU. If there is no sign of a path to ground on the injector's Orange lead with the bulkhead connector disconnected, also check other Orange leads to see if they now show no path to ground. If the ground only takes place with the bulkhead connector attached, the ground source is the ECU via Pin 6. Another troubleshooting route: At the fuel pump relay, which poles show a voltage reading with the ignition switch in the On position? Does the EGR/EVAP solenoid work but the fuel injector does not? The injector is an electro-magnetic pintle. The injector requires positive voltage on one side and a ground completion on the other. If Orange is the hot 12V feed, then Light Blue to the injector must be the ground provided by ECU pin 21. Isolate the injector. If Orange is a hot lead, apply hot current to that pole of the injector. Use a jumper lead to ground on the other pole for testing the injector. If the TBI unit is fuel pressurized, you should see fuel flow when this circuit is complete. Again, first confirm whether Orange is consistently 12V hot/positive voltage when you turn the key to the On position. This would show that the relay is connecting Yellow 12V current to the Orange circuits. If other Orange feed devices work (fuel pump, EGR/EVAP solenoid, etc.), and only the Injector does not work, then either the fuel pump relay is defective or the injector is not getting a signal from Pin 21 of the ECU. Remember, the ECU will send an intermittent (not constant) signal to the injector. The injector does not stay on, it pulses when triggered by the ECU. If the wiring, the relays and ECU are not defective, and if the injector works when you isolate and test it, look for something that could be blocking fuel between the fuel regulator and the injector. If there is no signal from Pin 21 on the ECU to the injector, the ECU could be defective. You could inspect and clean the ECU 35-way connector plug and inspect the pins and slots before condemning the ECU. Moses
  4. Hi, Jeepdog...Sounds like you've put a lot of work into your Jeep CJ-7! 1) I played through the 0:21 second video five times to catch the last few seconds and what appears to be a major issue: The input shaft is floating end wise. The tapered bearing appears to be moving inward, and if the shaft and bearing are not retained properly, the synchronizers will be out of alignment and could be dragging or scraping while the input shaft and mainshaft are flexing. This would account for the brass. 2) The 0:07 second video sounds like something loose, possibly the pivot for the clutch release arm? Or maybe a rattle between the release fork and the release bearing collar? Or maybe a bearing collar I.D. too big for the bearing retainer? Did you change the crankshaft pilot bearing? Is it the right size for the nose end of the T4 input shaft/gear? This might contribute to the clutch back-and-forth noise. This could also be the input gear rattling between the front bearing and the bearing retainer. 3) The 0.36 second video sounds like the front/input gear is floating around and allowing the synchronizer pieces to flex and catch. Have you seen any rub marks on the brass rings? The front gear is not in proper alignment and is allowing other parts to move out of alignment. The shaft is also running out of center when there is that degree of endplay. The problem is most likely the placement and position of the input gear and/or the mainshaft is floating rearward. Something is causing the front drive gear bearing to move forward and back in the retainer/bearing cup. A snap ring could be missing/out of place, or there could be another cause for the shaft to be floating fore-and-aft. The mainshaft must also align properly and stay aligned. To help you understand the relationship of these parts and the need to shim the clutch gear/input bearing to achieve proper bearing preload, here is a vintage video that can help. (You may be missing the shims!) Start at 11:40 to prevent falling asleep in the earlier part of this training video. The illustration is actually a T5 Jeep unit, similar in most respects to your layout: Thrust washers or input bearing shims could be missing and allowing the input or mainshaft to set rearward. You replaced the front bearing retainer, look here first...Missing shims at the front bearing cup would permit the input gear to move forward and back. If these parts do not line up with the shift forks and synchronizers, there will be interference and noise. Also, the synchronizer plates/keys and the synchronizer springs must be positioned correctly during assembly. If not, the keys will jump out of position and could be dragging... Let us know what you find...Here for any questions! Moses
  5. Carlos...Open up the PDFs from yesterday and below...The Yellow wire feeds from the ignition key circuit to the relay. Yellow should read 12V hot with the key in the ON position. There is one Orange lead that connects to Pin 6 of the ECU. In looking at the relay diagram, the Pin 6 Orange lead might be completing the ground to the fuel pump relay and closing the relay switch. The fuel pump relay needs a ground to work with the Yellow lead in order to close the coil/switch inside the relay. Do any of the other Orange leads show continuity to ground? If so, Orange could be a ground completion circuit and Pin 6 is feeding the ground signal from the ECU Pin 6 to the fuel pump relay to close the fuel pump relay switch. See if the ignition KEY ON activates the Yellow wire. The Yellow wire should be 12V hot with the key on. With and without the Yellow lead hot, read between the other poles on the fuel pump relay. Read the Orange wire's pole that feeds to the ECU Pin 6 for ground and hot...With the relay removed and no wires connected to the relay, use a hot jumper wire to create the Yellow pole connection and see if the relay clicks when you attach a ground to the Orange wire's pole (the Pin 6 ECU lead) at the relay. If it does click, then the ECU must be providing the ground side to the fuel pump relay by way of the Orange lead from Pin #6. These relay switches have a magnetic coil that is activated by the yellow (hot) wire on one side and in this case it looks like the Orange wire (a ground from ECU Pin 6?) on the other side of that coil. The relay needs the 12V yellow wire signal and also a ground signal to close the relay switch. Once closed, the other contacts are connected. Test the relay's functions. If no clicking with a hot pole and a ground, try swapping relays to see if you can get a relay to work. There is a second relay called the "B+ Latch Relay" that also interacts with these circuits. You might try replacing that relay. Review that circuit in a PDF: B+ Latch Relay in 2.5L TBI Circuit.pdf The cover in your hand is the bulkhead wire bundle that goes through the firewall. On the dash side of the firewall, some of those wires feed to the ECU. RD is also to the starter relay switch as shown in the B+ Latch Relay PDF above. The other Orange leads depend upon the fuel pump relay to close and provide them with a voltage reading (either hot or ground side, this is D.C.). Below is a PDF of the Bulkhead connector wiring identification and each wire's location on the bulkhead connector. The bulkhead view is from the inside of the firewall, you can follow the color coding from there through the firewall to the engine bay. I also included the 35-Way ECU pin layout with all color coding. See each of the two pages: YJ 2.5L Bulkhead Connection and ECU Pin Readout.pdf If you're not finding poor connections or burned wires, you should focus on the relays and possibly the ECU. Getting the Fuel Pump Relay to function, whether in a simulated test or through the circuits, should get the injector to open. This should help clarify... Moses
  6. Your reasoning is sound, Carlos. Keep in mind, however, that the injector only pulses on when there is an ECU signal from Pin 21 on the ECU. The ECU signal requires that the engine is either cranking or in run mode. There is never a steady opening of the injector, if there were, the injector would continually flow fuel. The injector only flows fuel when the ECU provides a signal from Pin 21. The current to open the injector, signaled from Pin 21, is both the injector open/close and the injector's pulse width. Pulse width is the duration (time interval) that the injector stays open. Note: Remember that fuel is under constant pressure, the fuel flow is strictly controlled by the pulse width of the injector. Width or time interval for the injector pulse determines the amount of fuel flowing, a response to the throttle position and other sensor feedback. When fuel demand is high, the injector open/pulse rate or width is higher. There is no pulse or flow at the injector without the ECU getting a signal from the crankshaft position sensor. The CPS tells the ECU that the engine is either cranking over or has achieved a running state. Make sure the CPS is functioning properly. To your point: The Yellow lead is "Ignition" (a true 12V source), which is the #3 pin at the 35-Way ECU connector. You describe "30", "85" and "87". These are common Bosch relay poles: The relay is a standard Bosch-type numeric, and the poles represent various conditions. The goal of the relay is to energize and create continuity between the intended poles when activated. This is a magnetic relay. It requires a ground and hot to close the circuit or magnetize the relay. Here is the wiring schematic for your YJ Wrangler's 2.5L TBI injector circuit: 2.5L TBI Injector Wiring.pdf I have included an extra page to address the Power Steering switch and other devices involved with the injector circuit. Check out the Power Steering Switch and other circuits for faults, opens or shorting: 2.5L TBI Injector and P.S. Wires.pdf Note that 14 gauge Yellow is the ignition ON source for 12 volts. According to this diagram, the EGR/Evaporator canister purge solenoid ("front of left shock tower") should be fed from a 14-gauge BR (brown) lead that feeds from a junction with 14-gauge Orange wires. Those Orange wires include a feed to the Fuel Injector. You should get continuity between the EGR /Evaporative canister's Brown wire and the injector's Orange wire. Note the pins on the ECU (6, 5, 21 and 18 on Page 8W-107). This should clarify how the ECU pins apply. The firewall bulkhead connector that you discovered includes many of the wires that feed to the 35-Way connector. The 35-Way connector should not be confused with the bulkhead connector. The 35-Way ECU connector is at the ECU unit under the dash. The Fuel Injector needs two signals to activate: 1) The fuel pump relay must function for the Fuel Injector to function. Try another relay in its place. Swap relays or try a new one. 2) The Injector must get a signal from Pin 21 on the 35-Way connector at the ECU. 3) If either the Light Blue signal from Pin 21 or the 14-gauge Orange wire feeding to the injector is not performing properly, you have no Injector flow. 4) Both the fuel pump and injector require Orange circuits to perform properly. The same is true of the Brown lead to the EGR/Evap canister solenoid. The fuel pump working is a good sign as long as all of the Orange wires at the junction have continuity. 5) The EGR/EVAP canister solenoid needs the Blue wire signal from the ECU at Pin 5. 6) The Injector needs the Light Blue wire signal from Pin 21 on the ECU. You can identify these wires at the firewall bulkhead connector. This may save the time and energy of crawling beneath the dash to locate the ECU 35-way connector. If you suspect a break in continuity between the bulkhead and the ECU connector, you'll need to go beneath the dash. See how my comments compare with your thoughts and conclusions...Keep us posted. Moses
  7. Hi, Monty...Yes, you do need to be concerned about tire clearance at the springs on a vintage Jeep CJ. The shallower backspacing (3.75" or less provides more negative wheel offset) would be preferred for your application especially in a wider 8" rim width. 4.03" would be for late model Jeep applications with unit hub wheel bearings. Make sure the 3.75" negative offset is ample enough, these wheels typically fit '76-up CJs. Here are wheels that specifically fit your Jeep CJ although a quick look at the specifications does not indicate the backspacing: https://www.quadratec.com/categories/jeep_wheels/steel_wheels?f[0]=sm_wheel_size%3A15x8&f[1]=sm_wheel_bolt_pattern%3A5 on 5.5" I would dig deeper into the wheels offered at the link above. Pick a wheel you like and go to the manufacturer's website to determine backspacing specifications for that particular wheel. Ultimately, you should ask your tire store to trial fit the wheels/tires before buying them. Most stores, like Discount Tire where I trade, will be price competitive or match the pricing on wheels. The tire size/width/diameter is the wild card. Typically, the vintage Jeep vehicles were candidates for 30" x 9.5 x 15 tires on a 7- or 8-inch wide rim. Beyond this may require a 2" lift for 31" x 10.5" x 15. Try the wheel/tire package before committing. I've had success with modern 31" diameter range radial LT tires on a 16" x 7" rim size. The real issue is your tire/wheel combination and whether the diameter and tread width of the tires will clear the springs. With your Jeep's full-floating front axle and stout rear axle bearing support (semi-floating with Spicer 44 stamina), you have little concern beyond the tire clearance at the front springs and the amount of acceptable stick-out from the fenders. One issue with closed knuckle axles is the modest caster angle, which makes the steering axis inclination different than the post-1975 CJs. When possible, I add positive caster angle to my early Jeep front wheel alignments. Cycle/twist the axles with a floor jack to make sure tires will clear over the range of wheel travel and lock-to-lock steering. If tires steer into the springs very slightly, one solution is to reset the axle/steering stops at the steering knuckles. This reduces the front wheels' turning angle and the vehicle's turning radius, so it must be done prudently. Keep in mind that any increase in tire diameter will demand a speedometer correction. This can be done by changing the speedometer drive pinion at the transfer case. Tooth count on the speedometer pinion determines the speed readout. Let us know how this turns out for your 1966 Jeep CJ! Moses
  8. Rear Disc Conversion options

    53HiHood...I did this on the '55 CJ-5 Jeep in my book. The great thing about Spicer/Dana axles is the common housing end flange pattern for the front and rear axles. I used a kit that was available from Warn at the time, using GM S-truck calipers with Jeep rotors as part of a rear full-floating hub conversion. The kit provided caliper mounting brackets, OE replacement calipers, bearings, hubs, rotors and the axle shafts cut and splined for the application. This provided free-wheeling hubs front and rear, popular for flat towing if you don't have an early Ross cam-and-lever steering gear....Frankly, I don't flat tow vehicles, especially short wheelbase Jeep 4x4s, for a variety of reasons. A full-floating rear axle conversion does involve axle shafts splined for your axle's differential side gears and the wheel hubs. Which axle are you using at the rear? An original Spicer 44 with offset differential? If so, the axle shaft part gets tricky. Warn custom built my axle shafts, and they no longer do any of these conversions nor supply any parts. If stock parts are your plan, you can use late '70s to early 'eighties Jeep CJ disc front wheel hubs, rotors and calipers for simplicity if you do go the full-floating route. You'll need to deal with the axle shaft length issue and caliper mounting brackets. I have seen conversions that simply used the front brake assemblies from the '77-'82 CJ front ends. (The Dana 30 front axle has the same flange pattern as your 44 rear axle). Again, this creates a rear full-floater similar to the Dana 30 front axle. The key here is a caliper mounting bracket that is safe and has the proper offset to center up the calipers. If you go this route with free-wheeling hubs, make sure that you use wheel hubs with the six-bolt free-wheeling hub flange and premium free-wheeling hubs. There is a lot of torque to the wheel hubs in 2WD mode...The axle shaft end float is also a concern, you want to minimize the axle shaft spline end float at the free-wheeling hubs. Some use a solid drive flange instead of free-wheeling hubs. (This would be similar to the front drive flanges used by Willys/Jeep when customers did not retrofit free-wheeling front wheel hubs.) Another angle would be one-piece axle shafts with a solid flange that bolts to the wheel hub. One-piece flanged axle shafts would eliminate the end float issue. Perhaps Moser and others could custom build axle shafts with the right length, side gear splines and end flange pattern for this purpose. We can discuss your findings and parts options... Here is a currently available rear disc conversion for '70-'75 Dana 44 Jeep axles: https://www.quadratec.com/products/32700_001X_PG.htm. You would need to have custom axle shafts made that would accommodate your Spicer 44 axle housing. This is a semi-floating axle arrangement, the axle shaft bearing fit/sizing would need to be compared to your early axle's tapered axle shaft housing and bearing design. One question would be fitting the axle shaft bearings into the early axle bearing bores. Will your rear axle work with a semi-floating bearing and seal arrangement like this? The axle shafts would require custom building for your axle's width and differential offset if you're using the '53 axle and Spicer 18 transfer case. Another approach that I believe is perfectly acceptable and much simpler would be an 11" x 2" rear drum brake conversion in conjunction with disc front brakes. This is a time-honored approach that Jeep and the aftermarket have taken. There are conversion kits and numerous other parts readily available from sources like this one: http://www.the-jeep-guy.com/brakes.htm. The only caveat with drum rear brakes is drying out the brakes after stream fording. This would be less pronounced with disc front brakes and 11" x 2" drum rear. Jeep CJs used 11" x 2" drum brakes to good effect in the '70s. Note the other upgrades suggested for disc front/drum rear brakes, including a properly sized dual master cylinder and booster (each specifically designed for disc front/drum rear brakes if disc/drum brakes are your choice), a proportioning valve if needed, an 11" x 2" drum brake conversion kit for the rear, etc. Think "system" upgrade...Make sure the master cylinder is ported for disc/drum brakes if you do disc front/drum rear brakes. If you do the 4-wheel disc brakes, make sure the master cylinder is correctly ported for disc brakes front and rear. You don't want drum brake residual pressure to cause drag on disc brake pads and rotors. Moses
  9. Hi, Carlos...The wiring diagram is graphic. You have a 35-way connector to the ECU. Keep that illustration in mind... Devices like the TBI injector are KEY ON hot. Typically, an ECU/ECM/PCM controller does not provide "hot" voltage but rather completes the ground to these D.C. devices. If the Orange lead (common) is KEY ON hot and provides a clean voltage reading, your aim is to verify whether the Green wire to solenoid and Light Blue to the injector are completing the ground. Disconnect the Light Blue and Green leads from the injector and EGR solenoid. If the Orange leads each read KEY ON hot with your voltmeter, you should be able to activate/test either device with a simple jumper wire to ground. If these devices each operate normally with a brief, temporary direct ground at the Light Blue and Green contacts, and if the injector is still not flowing fuel, then the ECU lead is not completing the ground properly. You're testing in this way: 1) When isolated, the Orange lead (common to both the EGR and the fuel injector) should be a KEY ON hot wire. Test the Orange (common) lead for voltage with the key in the ON position. If the Orange (common) lead provides KEY ON voltage, grounding the Light Blue or Green pole at each of these devices should activate them. Do this only briefly, as they normally operate at approximately half the KEY ON voltage. Do not damage the devices. 2) If you have KEY ON Orange wire voltage to each device, disconnect the plugs at the EGR solenoid and injector. Use your meter as a jumper between the Light Blue and Green plug pins and each device. Read the Light Blue and Green wires for both voltage and ground resistance. What do you get? 3) With the device plugs disconnected from the EGR solenoid and injector, check for voltage and also check for ground continuity on the Light Blue and Green plug connectors. Test with the KEY ON—you may need to crank the engine to get an injector pulse signal. 3) Connect or jumper the KEY ON Orange leads to the EGR solenoid and the injector. If grounding the EGR solenoid (Green wire contact on the solenoid) and injector (Light Blue wire contact on the injector) directly at the device activates the EGR and the injector, check the wiring continuity and resistance between these devices and their ECU contacts. On the 35-Way ECU connector, Pin 5 is the EGR signal. Pin 21 of the 35-way connector is the injector signal. (The plug is not easy to reach for continuity testing!) See whether there is too much resistance in the injector lead to the ECU. If not, the ECU itself could be at fault. Rebuilt ECU units are available if you isolate the problem to the injector's ECU signal. Although I always caution against taking a "parts replacement troubleshooting" approach, we have many examples of these circuits breaking down in the ECU, and thorough troubleshooting can isolate the ECU as the culprit. You could get creative and inspect the ECU like some have. Here is an example of what can go wrong in an ECU. See CSMART's great troubleshooting and photo of an ECU board burnout: Moses
  10. Wheel Stud Shoulder Length Issue

    Oh, well...Case closed, and that's what matters! Understand the issues with projects left on hold!
  11. Speed...The 22R and 22RE is fundamental for an OHC engine. Rebuilding should be no great challenge. Valve timing is the only challenge, care must be taken to confirm the valve timing with the chain tensioner in place and the crankshaft turning to TDC on the compression stroke. If you pass TDC, either 1) rotate the crankshaft backward 90 degrees or so and bring it back slowly to precise TDC or 2) rotate the crankshaft in its normal direction of rotation all the way through to TDC for #1 piston on its compression stroke. Bring the piston up slowly and do not pass TDC position. The timing chain must have tension on its pull side to accurately verify timing. This is easier done by placing the #1 piston at TDC before installing the cylinder head and making sure the crankshaft stays put while installing the timing chain and tensioner mechanism. Always confirm valve timing by rotating the crankshaft in its normal direction of rotation and slowly bringing the #1 piston to exact TDC on its compression stroke. This tensions the chain on its pull side. Always replace the timing chain and tensioner assembly during a Toyota 22R or 22RE engine build. A shop manual or aftermarket rebuild book will help with your project. On eBay, there should be many used manuals available for the 22R/22RE era Toyota engines. A guide that focuses on your Toyota model would be more detailed, something like the books How to Keep Your Toyota Pickup Alive (Muir Publications' classic) or Bentley Publishers' service manual. Of course, there are also Toyota factory service manuals from that era, though somewhat rarer and often more expensive...If you have specific, unanswered questions, I have a number of Toyota reference books and can walk you through a problem. Moses
  12. Speed...In considering why they did not use a mechanical (i.e., shift rods like a Brownie or Spicer auxiliary transmission) system for two-speed axle engagement, the answer is simple: The axle moves up-and-down independent of the frame. Vacuum, electric, hydraulic, flexing cable (like E-brake cables), or pneumatic systems allow for a flexible shift control that complies with the axle's movement over its range of travel. Look at the '57 GMC 350* electric mechanism, it may be nothing more than an adaptation on your vacuum setup. Maybe the shift mechanism parts will interchange with your vacuum setup and allow you to keep your axle center section? Take a peek and compare parts closely. As for climbing grades with a vacuum shift system, yikes! I'd want a vacuum reservoir tank on that circuit... *"Blue Chip Series" trucks were styled like Chevrolet "Task Force Series", a great cab profile with tough Pontiac V-8s and Jimmy sixes! Moses
  13. Speed...The later Eaton differential lockers are electrically actuated. Though internal shift clutches, there might be a way to go with an Eaton electric/magnetic solenoid approach. Here is some fodder to ponder: http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Vehicle/Differentials/eaton-elocker/index.htm http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Vehicle/Differentials/intellitrac-differential/index.htm http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Vehicle/Differentials/egerodisc-differentials/index.htm Also, Tremec heavy-duty truck gearboxes use mechanical linkage and also pneumatic shift mechanisms...An air actuated system (pressurized) might be an alternative. There are many hydraulic controls and air pressure controls that feature a cylinder with a control valve (cab mounted in your case). An even simpler, less involved approach might be a cable/manually activated or mechanical shift rod linkage with brackets that would serve the same function as the vacuum diaphragm. The issue with a manual control (possible prototype is the Spicer or Brownie auxiliary two-speed transmission/gearbox shifters) would be kickback and assuring that the axle holds in gear and remains engaged. For the Spicer/Brownie, there would be internal shift rod detents and other means for keeping the box in gear. We'd have to look at your Eaton 1350 internals to see whether there are built-in detents to keep the gears engaged. If not, a trip-over handle mechanism might suffice, each end of the lever's positions capable of "locking" the cable or shift rod in a fixed position until you shift again. In any case, you do not want the two-speed axle mechanism to kick out of gear by itself at the wrong time—like on a downgrade when you need compression braking! Moses
  14. Thanks for the subscription comment, Carlos... The fuel supply system passed the quick test for fuel supply. If you're concerned, verify the regulator pressure adjustment when you've solved the basic problem. The ground resistance reading is a real clue. Good diagnostics approach on your part, taking the local ground at the TBI and make it loop back to the battery negative...In the scheme of how grounding should work, the real test is just what you did: test from the device all the way to the battery ground. Superficially, this accounts for circuit continuity, but more importantly you've confirmed the resistance in that circuit. High resistance is, simply put, a source for voltage drop in a 12VDC system. You're on the right track. Consider all grounds including the ECU. I'm confident you'll find the trouble spot. This is a great illustration of how much voltage drop can take place due to a weak ground or too much ground resistance. Excess ground resistance could be from an open, a poor connection or a frayed ground lead—even at the battery. Corrosion wicking and oxidation, or corrosion at a ground connection, even as simple as the battery post to the cable terminal resistance, can drop voltage significantly. Poor surface contact between the battery cable terminal and its post can be a trouble spot. One test that works very well on the ground circuit is a lamp load test. This can be done by making a 12VDC bulb into a diagnostic tool. The bulb becomes a "device", much like any electrical drain or driven device (a heater motor, headlamps, a cigarette lighter/power supply source, etc.). The link below is to a useful paper on automotive voltage drop with mention of a simple lamp load test. The lamp load test is optimal on the ground side of a 12VDC system. You understand ohms-resistance well; voltage drop to a "device", including a simple lamp load tester, is a symptom of excessive resistance*: http://www.fluke.com/fluke/uses/comunidad/fluke-news-plus/articlecategories/electrical/diagnosevoltdrop *Causes of excess resistance can be under-capacity/smaller gauge wire, loose or corroded connections, strands of wire not making contact, crimp "butt connector" wire splice connections that create poor contact with all the wire strands, corroded wire, corroded terminals, poor grounding on a D.C. system, or virtually any resistance that increases load on a circuit. Footnote: Fluke has some remarkable, albeit expensive, test equipment. The test meters that I like can perform an insulation resistance test. The Fluke 1587 is one DMM example. The low amperage of four AA batteries is converted into very high voltage at a very low and non-destructive amperage. This source of current is sent through the circuit or wire(s) being tested, and the high voltage will find its way through leaky insulation. Depending on the probe contact points, the DMM readout provides an ohms resistance reading to either a ground point or between parallel wires, detecting a leak through the wire insulation of the two wires. (These test meters can run voltage up to the 1000V level with no other power to the circuit. Visualize running this non-destructive test on automotive 12VDC wiring harnesses with the vehicle's 12V battery disconnected. Of course, a 50V insulation resistance test setting would be plenty on sensitive circuits.) A Fluke 1587 insulation resistance test can include circuits buried inside remote wire harnesses that would otherwise require guesswork or labor intensive stripping out of wire (hot leads or grounds) within the circuits in order to make a visual inspection. The leaking voltage or voltage resistance (measured down to milli-ohms) is easily read by the meter. The lamp load test is very simple and can be done on light wire circuits with a smaller automotive bulb and on heavier circuits with a head lamp. Read through the Fluke information at the link above. The paper addresses automotive electrical systems, and at the bottom of the text you'll find a short section discussing "ground gremlins". I also hyperlinked the Fluke 1587 if you're curious about that meter. Spendy but what an instrument for chasing down hidden wiring troubles! Let us know what you find, Carlos... Moses
  15. Hi, Ian...Sounds like you have a good handle on the 6.2L. Given its unknown internal wear and previous life in a HUMVEE, the non-turbocharged approach remains prudent and best for the long haul. Boost increases heat, if we force more fuel into our diesel engines, the pyrometer soars. Turbos are a great way to compensate for altitude, though. I notice with our Ram/Cummins that vehicle speed, wind resistance (i.e., lift kit, big front bumper and way oversized tires, etc.) plus load are crucial factors around fuel efficiency. I use the torque peak as a "redline" whenever possible, and with Hypertech Max Energy tune, that is now 2100 rpm. Actually, 1600-1900 rpm has always delivered the best fuel efficiency and still does. When new and in stock form, I could squeeze a consistent 23-plus mpg running unloaded with the engine between 1600 (the OE torque peak point) and 1750 rpm. A steady 1900 was okay for 20-21 mpg. Over 1900 rpm, to this day, has the fuel efficiency dropping steadily and dramatically...the faster the crankshaft speed, the greater the fuel use. A good friend and former Jeep Engineer, very familiar with the Cummins trucks like mine, says it's all about the physics of wind resistance and speed. Too much of either will destroy fuel mileage. I believe him and have stopped looking for a Holy Grail fix to get my mileage anywhere near what the truck/engine did stock... Try capping cruise rpm to the rated torque peak point for the naturally aspirated 6.2L diesel. I try to use this formula in each gear as well. Moses
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