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Moses Ludel

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About Moses Ludel

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    http://www.4WDmechanix.com

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    Male
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    Reno Area...Nevada
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    Family, destination four-wheeling and dual-sport motorcycling, photography, videography, fly-fishing, anthropology, automotive mechanics and welding/metallurgy.

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  1. DattMtn...All testing can be done without removing the cylinder head...Key off, coil wire pulled, rotate the crankshaft to bring #1 piston to TDC on the compression stroke. Be certain that the rocker arms are in their correct positions; the rocker tips should center over their valve stems. Check the valve rockers for play. If you loosen the rocker bolts, the plungers in the lifters will extend to full height. Wiggle the pushrod to confirm whether there is play or clearance; this is easier if you rotate the pushrod back and forth gently with your fingers, lifting up and down to confirm clearance. Very slowly, rotate the rocker bolt down until the play just disappears. Do not go further or you will be compressing the lifter plunger. If you go too far, back off the bolt until the plunger has extended to full height again. Each lifter has an internal spring to expand the plunger height until the cup is against the retainer clip (plunger fully extended). If you have a dial indicator, place it at the top of the rocker arm, directly over the pushrod. Turn the rocker bolt down very slowly, watching the dial indicator to confirm how far down the lifter plunger drops. (This is the lifter preload.) Full preload takes place when the rocker bolt bottoms snugly. Do this at each cylinder with its piston at TDC, both valves closed and the camshaft lobes on their heels. See whether each lifter has normal lifter preload. If they each do, you should have no lifter noise. If you do have noise, either the lifters are not getting enough oil, or they are bleeding down. A new set of lifters is seldom defective and bleeding down. Be sure that the new camshaft lobes look normal and not worn on their peaks. To confirm that the lifters get oil, after you tighten each rocker, you should feel distinct pressure/resistance in the lifter. (Apply heavy thumb pressure at the rocker's pushrod end.) Resistance is normal and means that oil is in the plunger and the lifter check valve works properly. Do not attempt to charge the lubrication system or fill lifters with oil when the pushrods and rocker arms are loose. If the lifter's plunger drops considerably when you apply pressure above the pushrod, the lifter likely has no oil in it or the lifter check valve is defective. If oiling is okay and the cam lobes are okay, there could be an issue with the pushrod lengths. You can measure lifter cup to rocker arm lengths with a CompCams pushrod gauge. Allow for desired preload. (Determine the correct length pushrod for zero clearance plus the desired preload.) Compare this length to the current pushrod's length. Do this with each lifter on the heel of its cam lobe. All this can be done with the cylinder head still in place. See the discussion on the CompCams tool and setting proper clearance. Read from the 12-23-2018 exchange downward... Moses
  2. Monty...By allowing the controlled cool-down, you had the best shot at stabilizing/restoring the grain structure and makeup of the metal. The biggest mistake some do with metal like this is cooling it abruptly with cold water. That freezes the heated metal in its expanded state while the grain structure is modified. Even though your approach is short of re-heat treating, there would be some softening of the overall tensile in the heated area due to possible annealing or normalizing. Like you say, though, the road and trails are the test. You'll most likely be fine and never have an issue here, especially with the reinforcement and boxing of the C-rails. These frames soften and metal fatigue naturally from flexing over time, yet they continue to offer service...You did a sensible approach for heat bending. Some argue that cold frame straightening is better. However, once metal stretches from bending it's not granularly/structurally the same, anyway. You avoided the risk of further metal stress from cold bending. I would pat yourself on the back for being thoughtful and doing your homework. Boxing the frame rails with stitch welds is always a good practice. This allows necessary frame flex. You made the effort to do the right thing. Now enjoy that Jeep and get some miles on it to test your handiwork! Moses
  3. Looks straight now, Monty. Only remaining question is frame tensile strength after heating. These frames are fairly flexible in stock form, and you reinforced/boxed the forward rails nicely. This likely nailed it...If this works, great! If you need to revisit the issue in the future, consider a shackle reversal approach. This places the anchors at the front end of the leaf springs and shackles at the rear of the front springs. The aftermarket kits or home approaches emulate the M38A1 military design. My '55 CJ-5 (first year CJ-5) was fortunate enough to have an M38A1 military type frame from the factory. This was the approach in '55 and some '56 CJs until your frame layout became standard for the CJ-5 and CJ-6 models. Some early CJ-5/CJ-6 builds had a factory two-piece windshield from the M38A1. The shackle reverse allows the front springs to trail from the front anchors. With anchors at the rear of the springs (your chassis), the frame is pushing the front axle forward with the springs. Off-pavement, the shackle reverse enables the axle to rise and set easier when tires press against a rock wall or other immovable objects. With the stock layout (your CJ's design), when the front tires press against an obstacle, the front springs arch and wrap up until enough energy "bounces" the axle upward. On the highway, the shackle reverse makes a considerable difference in steering control and handling. My Jeep® CJ Rebuilder's Manual: 1946-71 (Bentley Publishers) illustrates the 1955 CJ-5's frame design. My Jeep® Owner's Bible and Jeep® CJ Rebuilder's Manual: 1972-86 illustrate aftermarket shackle reverse kits. There are several aftermarket sources for CJ shackle reverse kits. Just some things to consider...Enjoy that Jeep!!! Moses
  4. Stuart...This is just what I envisioned for your end result: a great venue to enjoy that CJ-7! The Jeep looks terrific, the terrain does, too...In answer to your questions:
  5. Wow, Speed, ambitious projects for winter time at Elko. Sounds like your distributor swap will do the trick on the Toyota. Good that NAPA had a replacement/rebuilt module. The National Cowboy Poetry Gathering is on this week at your town. That certainly raises the traffic count! Glad you're there for your sister, Speed... Moses
  6. Monty...Your modern gear lube is a better product than lube available when this winch was new. As for the lifespan of a Koenig PTO winch in good condition, you have a winner! Koenig's Texas base was a hint about its primary market: oil field trucks and industrial applications. This was not a recreational market, and commercial usage demanded efficiency and reliability. Hoisting equipment was another market, and Koenig winches were often seen on wreckers and tow trucks. Ramsey and Koenig competed with each other for this commercial market, and each became popular in the emerging recreational markets. Koenig had a firm market in oilfield work, mining, mineral exploration, hoisting and industrial winches. Yes, you have an "industrial strength" winch, and PTO power is the ultimate torque source with gearing—as long as the engine is not stalled while stream fording or scaling a rock wall. Here, an electric winch prevails. Moses
  7. Additional exchange with Lynn: Question from Lynn: "I am hoping this is the last time I’m bothering you about pinion angles. Thanks again for the in depth explanations...I downloaded an app to measure angles a little more accurately. I came up with 13.5° on driveshaft and 8.5° on pinion yoke. So does that work out to be a 3° shim I need? Also I believe when shims are installed on CV driveshaft the beefy end will be facing the rear of Jeep?" Lynn...Your measurements must be with the vehicle on level ground and the body's weight fully on the axles…If you measured the pinion yoke at the flange flat (with the yoke flanges pointed straight up and down), then the pinion shaft is on an 8.5-degree slope or angle. If the pinion shaft is on an 8.5 degree slope, and the driveshaft is on a 13.5-degree slope angle, the difference between the two angles is 5 degrees. You want to reduce this difference to 1.5 to 2 degrees. Rotating the axle housing and pinion shaft upward with a three degree shim set should work. The end result will be 2-degrees of U-joint tilt or angle. Most shims, by design, allow minor adjustment in either direction, but 2 degrees is fine. I run 2-degrees on my XJ's rear U-joint angle. When you are through installing the shims, with the spring U-bolts torqued evenly to specification and the Jeep on level ground with body weight on the axles, you should have a 2-degree or less rear U-joint angle or tilt. The driveshaft slope angle may decrease slightly when the pinion rotates upward, dropping the difference figure closer to 1.5 degrees. Let us know your final readings. The "shims" are wedge-shaped metal plates that fit between the axle perches and the leaf springs on your Jeep XJ Cherokee. (The TJ and newer Wranglers have link-and-coil spring suspension, and the shim fit is different.) You will be raising the vehicle safely, supporting the body/frame, allowing the springs to sag fully, and then loosening the spring U-bolts evenly. When there is enough gap between the spring centering bolt and the axle spring perch to allow inserting the wedge shim, the shim's narrow end will face forward. When both shims are in place, the tapered shims rotate the axle housing and pinion shaft upward to reduce the U-joint angle...Shims are not installed on the CV driveshaft itself; the tapered shims fit between the axle spring perches and leaf springs to rotate the axle housing and pinion shaft. This rotation changes the pinion angle. I use steel (not aluminum) shims that match the width of the leaf springs. Shims need to support the leaf springs properly. Torque the spring U-bolt nuts in cross and evenly to factory torque specification. I like to re-check the nut torque after driving the vehicle and cycling the suspension. Moses
  8. Lynn shared this photo. Here, he has only measured the driveshaft slope...Below the photo is my explanation of how to measure the driveshaft-to-pinion shaft (U-joint tilt) angle: Lynn...I looked closer at your photo and saw the string measurement. This must be your driveshaft (tube) slope with the vehicle level. The measurement you want is the angle between the driveshaft (tube) and the axle pinion shaft. If you draw a line straight out from the pinion shaft centerline and measure its relationship to the driveline slope, you have the angle you want. Put simpler, you can place your string gauge on the flat outer flange of the pinion yoke with the pinion/U-joint yoke facing straight up and down. Note: For pinion angle reference, the axle’s pinion shaft centerline is parallel to the pinion yoke’s outer flanges. The magnetic angle gauges attach to the U-joint yoke’s outer flange(s). It is important that the U-joint yoke’s flanges face straight up and down when measuring this angle. The 1.5 to 2 degrees is the angle or tilt of the rear U-joint. If your driveline slope with a string line gauge is 20 degrees, the axle’s pinion centerline angle should be 18.5 to 18 degrees. (In geometry or trigonometry, the angle between the driveline tube and pinion shaft centerline is two intersecting slope lines with a deviation of 1.5 to 2 degrees.) With the CV driveline, the axle’s pinion yoke joint angle approaches a straight line with the driveshaft tube, deviating only 1.5 to 2 degrees from straight. That tilt has the axle pinion shaft pointed slightly downward. The usual tools for measuring this angle would be a protractor gauge or a magnetic spirit/bubble level gauge. Both measure in degrees like your string gauge and plumb bob. Your approach can work if you use the gauge and plumb bob/string properly. When the axle housing is rotated correctly, the driveshaft tube will appear to run nearly straight into the pinion, the tilt being only the slight 1.5 to 2 degrees. Below is a factory/Mopar Inclinometer (7663) tool for measuring U-joint flange angles and, in this instance, the front axle caster angle. This gauge has a spirit/bubble and a tilt scale in degrees. The top of the gauge has a magnet that attaches to a U-joint yoke flange: Here is a time-honored Spicer Anglemaster gauge, the latest "Anglemaster II" version. Note that this gauge attaches on the flatly machined flange end of the U-joint yoke. This angle can be quickly compared to the slope angle of the driveshaft. The difference between the two angles is the U-joint tilt or joint angle. These angles are always measured with the vehicle at normal/curb ride height and vehicle weight on the axle(s). Do not take driveline and joint angle measurements with the axle hanging off the floor. The vehicle should be standing on level ground or with the axle(s) supported safely on jack stands or tripod stands. Driveline angles for trucks or SUVs that carry a hefty load should be measured with the full payload on the axles: For more information on an SYE conversion and the use of a CV rear driveshaft, visit: 4WD Mechanix Magazine article on an NP/NV231 transfer case SYE kit installation, click here. For details on our XJ Cherokee's 6-inch long arm lift that required an SYE and CV rear driveline, click here for the magazine article at 4WD Mechanix.
  9. Speed, I have a suggestion for a 1978-87 Toyota pickup service manual that you would find very helpful: Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual by Robert Bentley Publisher. Bentley is my book publisher, and they do the factory shop manuals for VW North America and Porsche, very professional, detailed stuff. My Toyota Truck and Land Cruiser Owner's Bible is in the Bentley Publishers book stable, but in this case I'm referring to an earlier Bentley in-house book that was model year specific and a designated shop/repair manual. The Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual is no longer in print and would need to be found and purchased used at Amazon, eBay or from an automotive literature (used books) outlet. Here's an earlier printing (through 1984 models) at Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Toyota-Pickup-Truck-Service-Manual/dp/0837602521/ref=sr_1_fkmr1_1?keywords=Toyota+Pickup%2C+4Runner+SErvice+Manual+Robert+Bentley&qid=1577800801&s=books&sr=8-1-fkmr1 If you can find a copy of Bentley's Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual on eBay or through used book channels, it has far more detail and helpful content than Haynes or any other aftermarket book. In the "Brakes and Wheels" Chapter 8, Pages 7-10 of the 1978-87 edition, there is a section devoted to your truck's Load-Sensing Proportioning System, including useful illustrations of the parts relationships and their original shapes. Equipped with a quality shop manual (either the book I'm suggesting or an official Toyota FSM that covers your truck), your confidence would soar. Unfortunately, many shops do not follow these protocols and either do not have the right books or have functionally illiterate, "know-it-all" staff. Social media like YouTube has gone further to dumb down and trivialize automotive work. Better training standards, brake work certification tests (like the trucking industry) and pay incentives would be helpful in this country. NIASE is a step in that direction but does not train techs to work on specific vehicles, model types or unique brake devices like your Toyota load-sensing rear brake proportioning system. I have bookcases full of FSMs from the 1940s to present and general automotive trade books dating back to the 1920s. Despite 52 years of professional automotive work, I still rely upon factory-level shop procedures and protocols. Anyone who doesn't is not performing professional grade work. If you cannot find or afford a used copy of the Toyota Pickup, 4Runner Service Manual, let me know. I'll scan the four pages described from the copy setting in my bookcase and post as a PDF. My publisher will not be offended nor cite me for infringing on copyright, the book is no longer in the market. Moses
  10. When installing a CV or SYE rear driveline, the rear axle pinion angle is important. A Jeep XJ Cherokee owner asked me about this angle and axle shimming (changing the pinion shaft angle). Here is our exchange: XJ Cherokee Owner's Question: "Mr. Ludel...I am wondering if you have an SYE on your XJ? I had one put on with a Tom Woods driveshaft. [The Jeep] rides smoother with its 2 1/2” lift, but I did not install shims. Are shims a must with an SYE?...Lynn W." My reply: Hi, Lynn…An SYE driveshaft has a double-Cardan or CV front joint. A double-Cardan joint has self-cancelling angles. The angle at the pinion/axle end of the rear driveshaft is important, however. That angle with an SYE/CV driveshaft should be 1.5 to 2-degrees. This is measured with the vehicle on the ground or the axles weighted. If the rear joint is straight (0-degrees), there will be inadequate rotation of the needle bearings inside the U-joint. The joint will fail prematurely…Too much rear U-joint angle is not good either. So, to answer your question, you do want to shim/rotate the rear axle and pinion shaft to achieve a 1.5 to 2-degree rear U-joint angle. I use hard steel (not aluminum) shims...Moses Here are Lynn's photos...This shaft needs a rear U-joint angle adjustment: Lynn's SYE and CV driveshaft has a Double-Cardan front joint...Here, the double U-joints cancel each other's angles... Lynn's rear axle pinion joint angle needs to be corrected. This single Cardan joint should run at 1.5 to 2 degrees, set with the vehicle's weight on the axles...To correct the pinion angle, wedge shaped shims fit between the rear axle's spring perches and the leaf springs. Pinion/U-joint angle is corrected with these shims.
  11. Hi, Speed, have a safe and pleasant New Year...Best in 2020...See my comments below:
  12. Let us know how this works out, Monty. What lube will you use in the unit? What did Koenig recommend?
  13. Monty...As a guess, the "KT88" bearing is likely a Timken T88. The "K" could be for "Koenig" parts inventory replacement purposes. Below is an illustration of the T88 Timken bearing. Does this look like a match? If this is it, the number is current, and retail price has it at $10-$15 from a variety of sources. I've added two part numbers that Timken still uses. The links are live and go to Motion Industries. If you can confirm the bearing fit (see sizes), the bearing is available from any Timken source. There is a small image below the larger one that may be helpful. Moses Timken T88W-904A3 Tapered Roller Thrust Bearing - 0.885 in Bore, 1.8906 in OD, 0.594 in Width Timken T88-904A1 Tapered Roller Thrust Bearing - 0.885 in Bore, 1.8906 in OD, 0.594 in Width
  14. Hi, Monty...What is your winch type, make and model? I'll check for a parts schematic that shows the orientation of these parts. The shown pieces appear to be in good shape! Vintage quality...Compare this to contemporary winches. Season's Best! Moses
  15. Wow, Stuart, the long and winding road! Years ago, Arizona required a simple tailpipe reading for emissions and never opened the hood. That changed, as you hint, to match California and other states where a visual inspection of emissions equipment is a mandatory part of emissions tests. Maybe there is a model year cutoff for the full inspection test, and if old enough, a vehicle reverts to the older tailpipe reading only method? Or does this have to do with your zip code? Pleased that you're on the road. This must be gratifying. The high HC/CO readings with your original carburetor could have reflected a unit with the wrong jetting. You were meticulous in your approach to rebuilding the carburetor, it should have performed to OEM standards. (The old carburetor may not have been in original form.) In any case, the El Monte shop's build must have the right jet and metering rod. Keep us posted on the performance and your driving impressions. Yes, the CJ-7 is a great improvement over the vintage Jeep CJ3B chassis, worlds apart. You have a longer wheelbase (94" versus 80") to smooth out the washboard roads plus longer springs to improve ride quality and control. I like an aftermarket front spring/shackle reverse on any of the Jeep models through the YJ Wrangler. Vehicle control and steering improve, and there's less frame impact when climbing over rocks or limbs. The front axle trails instead of being pushed forward from the anchor (rear) end of the front springs. Something to consider, not a must. Where will you be driving off-road at Arizona? You have a wealth of open country to explore! Season's Best, Moses
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