Moses Ludel

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About Moses Ludel

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  • Birthday June 7

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    Reno Area...Nevada
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    Family, destination four-wheeling and dual-sport motorcycling, photography, videography, fly-fishing, anthropology, automotive mechanics and welding/metallurgy.

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  1. Sabueso...Sensible to test the CPS when the fault occurs. If you have a surface temp infrared tool handy, you might also test the temperature of the CPS when it faults... Moses
  2. Sabueso...The CPS (crankshaft position sensor), like any other electronic device or sensor, can be affected by heat. I'll buy that reasoning. A new CPS based upon the resistance test readings also makes sense. While we're on the subject of the CPS, do you have any oil leaking onto the CPS or the flywheel notches (hall effect)? A leaking rear main seal can raise havoc with any CPS that signals from the flywheel or flexplate. Excess resistance is trouble-making resistance, regardless of the cause... Moses
  3. Mudbullet...This bearing cap seam should index with the centerline of the bearing cone/race. The bearing cap/housing seam should be mid-line of the bearing cup/cone and also the mid-line of the ring gear. I like your approach. Let us know how close this turns out. The Spicer/Dana bare axle housing approach uses discs sized for each bearing cap with a round bar that runs through the disc centers. The only advantage is that the bar is true centerline for both bearing caps. If your plate tool bridges between the two bearing cap machined flats in the housing, this would be nearly the same thing. Motive Gear has a good approach if they furnish the measurement from the bearing cap/housing seam (the bearing cone centerline) to the pinion head. See how that works. Moses
  4. Mr Rex, this has been fun to explore, glad it has been helpful. Like you suggest, I would freshen the transmission with new bearings and a 1st/reverse sliding gear. Gears pop up at eBay all the time, not that rare yet and still somewhat inexpensive. Northwest Transmission Parts (Ohio at was a good parts source when I restored these units in the 2005-2010 period. So the Ford transmissions, based upon your gear tooth numbers and my reference source, narrows down to one of three applications. Their main drive gear measurements would be 8-1/8" or 8-5/8" overall length, measured from the pilot nose end to the synchronizer hub end. The three choices would be: 1) 1960-62 passenger car with the 292 Y-block V-8 or 1958-63 passenger car with the 223 inline six (both use an 8-1/8" main drive gear length and your 18-30T count) 2) 1963 passenger car with the small-block 260 V-8 if the the main drive gear is 8-5/8" overall length You may be able to measure the drive gear overall length by estimating its depth into the 3rd gear brass synchronizer ring. You're only trying to determine whether this is 8-1/8" versus 8-5/8" overall length (O.A.), an obvious half-inch difference between the two. From the top of the case, line up a straight-edge where you estimate the inside end of the input/drive gear should be. Measure to the pilot end of the drive gear. Don't bother taking the transmission apart any further, you should be able get a rough sense for the overall length of the main drive gear without disassembling the transmission. The 1963 260 V-8 would be a rare application like a Fairlane with the 3-speed O.D. This would be the longer input gear application for 260/289 style V-8 bellhousings. A 1958-62 circa Ford passenger car transmission is more likely, but let us know which main drive gear you have here...The O.D. wiring color code is distinctly Ford 12V era; however, it does look spliced. Moses
  5. Nate...On your behalf and that of many other Jeep 2.5L TBI troubleshooters, I put together a comprehensive list of PDFs covering the troubleshooting of 2.5L TBI, diagnostics and adjustments like you're attempting. Here is the forum page: You will find information in the first PDF on the list that thoroughly covers the ISA motor and closed throttle switch, including wiring diagrams and diagnostics points. The ECU pinout shows the pins for extending and retracting the ISA motor. There is also a clear illustration of the ISA motor/closed switch connector. If you follow the wiring diagram that I also included for your "Model 81" Jeep YJ Wrangler, you can find the pin sockets at the ISA motor connector for the ground, the hot and the retracted or extended positions of the plunger. Read the PDF that covers adjustment of the ISA/closed switch and references to how far the plunger should extend and stop. You can test the ISA/closed switch this way. The PDFs are actual factory testing and adjustment procedures. You can simulate the "ele. AB.99" tool's functions by disconnecting and powering up the ISA connector directly. Determine the ground, hot, retract and extend pins. If you make a battery jumper, be sure to fuse the jumper to protect the ISA motor and wiring. Avoid playing with the ECU connector other than to trace wire color codes back to the ISA connector. Moses
  6. Here is 1987-90 Jeep YJ Wrangler and Jeep XJ Cherokee/MJ Comanche 2.5L TBI diagnostics information in PDF form. The first document includes all sensor and switch tests plus adjustments that affect engine tune, idle and reliability. Wiring schematics and ECU pin locations, test plugs and diagnostics included. Jeep 2.5L TBI Complete Diagnostics-Sensors-Switches.pdf Jeep 2.5L TBI ECU Inputs and Outputs.pdf Jeep 2.5L TBI MAP Sensor Test.pdf Jeep 2.5L Timing Chain and Tensioner.pdf Jeep 2.5L Valve Timing Check.pdf Jeep YJ 2.5L TBI Sensors and Pinout.pdf YJ Wrangler 2.5L TBI Wiring of WOT to ECU.pdf Jeep YJ 2.5L ISA Wiring Diagram.pdf 1987-90 2.5L TBI Intake Manifold and Sensors.pdf 1987-90 YJ Wrangler 2.5L TBI Emissions System Parts.pdf YJ Wrangler Fuel Filter and Guard.pdf 2.5L TBI ISA Motor Adjustment.pdf Used in conjunction with the many forum exchanges (search under "All Content" and "2.5L TBI" in the search box), plus the Jeep 2.5L TBI troubleshooting article at the magazine website, this information will help solve your Jeep YJ Wrangler or XJ Cherokee 2.5L TBI troubles. In references, the Model 81 is the Jeep YJ Wrangler. The Model 60/70 is the XJ Cherokee and MJ Comanche Pickup. Moses
  7. Here is 1987-90 Jeep YJ Wrangler and Jeep XJ Cherokee/MJ Comanche 2.5L TBI diagnostics information in PDF form. The first document includes all sensor and switch tests plus adjustments that affect engine tune, idle and reliability. Wiring schematics and ECU pin locations, test plugs and diagnostics included. Jeep 2.5L TBI Complete Diagnostics-Sensors-Switches.pdf Jeep 2.5L TBI ECU Inputs and Outputs.pdf Jeep 2.5L TBI MAP Sensor Test.pdf Jeep 2.5L Timing Chain and Tensioner.pdf Jeep 2.5L Valve Timing Check.pdf Jeep YJ 2.5L TBI Sensors and Pinout.pdf YJ Wrangler 2.5L TBI Wiring of WOT to ECU.pdf Jeep YJ 2.5L ISA Wiring Diagram.pdf 1987-90 2.5L TBI Intake Manifold and Sensors.pdf 1987-90 YJ Wrangler 2.5L TBI Emissions System Parts.pdf YJ Wrangler Fuel Filter and Guard.pdf 2.5L TBI ISA Motor Adjustment.pdf Used in conjunction with the many forum exchanges (search under "All Content" and "2.5L TBI" in the search box), plus the Jeep 2.5L TBI troubleshooting article at the magazine website, this information will help solve your Jeep YJ Wrangler or XJ Cherokee 2.5L TBI troubles. In references, the Model 81 is the Jeep YJ Wrangler. The Model 60/70 is the XJ Cherokee and MJ Comanche Pickup. Moses
  8. Mudbullet...I do have a suggestion that might save time...After making your trial bearings for the pinion and carrier, install the pinion without any shims, and tighten the pinion flange nut snugly. Set the carrier in position without shims and use the bearing caps to hold the bearing cups/races where you want them. Jockey the ring and pinion gears to simulate the rough gear alignment and backlash; establish a reasonable tooth contact pattern then tighten the bearing caps enough to hold the carrier cups steady—without perceptible carrier lateral movement. Use a dial indicator to see how much pinion shaft end play there is between the point that the gears come together with a reasonable tooth contact pattern and the outer position of the pinion shaft when you pull the shaft straight rearward from the axle housing. This end play measurement will give you a rough shim pack starting point. Install the rough stack shims and check the pinion shaft end play again while keeping watch on the tooth contact pattern. Now you can fine tune the shim packs to get the right contact pattern. Finally, add or subtract the necessary shim thickness for proper bearing preloads, correct pinion depth and backlash. Note: All this time, the tooth contact pattern should be governed by Dana/Spicer chart views of proper tooth patterns for the Dana 30. You'll do the same with the Dana 35 rear axle. Keep in mind that final torque on the pinion nuts will flatten shims and alter the settings. Allow for this by tightening the old/test pinion nut securely during your final trial tests...This will help make your new bearing and pinion nut settings match up with the test settings. We've discussed trial bearings. These bearings are running in the original races if those races are okay. You shared that they've only been installed a short time, presumably the races are not damaged. Once you get your trial fit (pinion depth, carrier centering for the right backlash, and the preload shimming for the bearings of the Dana 30, you can disassemble and change out the races. Again, there should be only a slight variance between the old cup and cone settings and the new bearing cone and cup/race settings. Try to estimate that slight difference so that your final assembly will put the bearing preloads, gear backlash and pinion depth exactly where you want it. Moses
  9. Nate...You're rightfully frustrated if the Jeep has not been roadworthy...I'm guessing you read through the ISA adjustment procedures in the extensive 2.5L TBI coverage here at the forums. Here is a quick recap in the PDFs: Here is the factory ISA motor adjustment procedure. Use great care when running the engine speed up. Stay away from the engine's cooling fan! (One way to eliminate risk of fan injury during this adjustment would be to temporarily remove the drive belt.): 2.5L TBI ISA Motor Adjustment.pdf Read these additional details on Closed Throttle (Idle) Switch testing in conjunction with the ISA motor and adjustments before performing ISA motor adjustment and tests: Closed Throttle Idle Switch & ISA Testing.pdf Note that I suggested a Closed Throttle (Idle) Switch test alongside the ISA Motor adjustment. There is a need to recycle the ISA if you adjust it incorrectly. When you read the ISA steps, the plunger needs to be actuated with the actuator tool before you set to 3500 rpm. Again, stay away from the fan or disconnect the fan belt to eliminate risk of injury with the engine running at this relatively high speed. Don't lean over the fan! If you are not actuating the plunger with the ISA connector uncoupled, you will not be able to get an accurate setting of 3500 rpm. I doubt you have access to the "ele. AB.99" tool. Here is the link to my 2.5L TBI troubleshooting article at the magazine, which helps explain the relationship between the various devices and symptoms associated with problems: There is a close relationship with the Closed Throttle Idle Switch, the ISA Motor and the TPS. Read through my article, it's well illustrated. See if any one of these three devices could be causing your idle speed trouble. We can resume the troubleshooting process once you have reviewed the information... Moses
  10. Mudbullet...Glad the article works well. You're in a dilemma here and need to go with your test/used (reasonably good condition) bearing approach. Spend time relieving the old bearings' inside bore sizes enough to allow the bearings to slide onto the pinion shaft and carrier flanges with even finger pressure. Keep these inner bores concentric, no looseness or bind, when grinding or sanding the bore. I've found that inexpensive 1/4" shank drum sanding discs from Lowe's or Home Depot will work as well as arbor grinding stones. Course works best on bearing steel, finer may be useful for polishing/finishing. Expect sanding paper to go away quickly when using a 1/4" drill motor on bearing steel. Here's a typical kit from Home Depot, you can get an even cheaper type, whatever you care to spend: I suggest that you first trial fit without approaching full torque on the pinion nut. For trial rough fitting, you're just trying to seat the bearings and fully flatten shims; full torque application is not necessary until you're reasonably close to the right shim stack. This will work for the YJ Wrangler front Dana 30 since you're relying on shims for both pinion depth and bearing preload (not a crush sleeve for the preload like the Dana 35 rear axle). Overall, you have one of two choices: 1) invest in an expensive bearing cap arbor pinion depth kit from Miller/OTC to establish the baseline pinion depth or 2) get yourself plenty of tooth contact marking paste and shims. If you choose the likely option #2, you'll need to assemble the differential and ring gear/carrier with new ring gear bolts and Loctite 271 on the threads; then after installing the pinion shaft and bearings with trial shims, you can roughly fit the carrier into the axle for trial testing. This can be done with trial bearings and just enough shimming to take out all lateral play at the carrier bearings; at the same time adjust the gear tooth backlash within factory specification. Run a tooth contact pattern test with a slight load on the pinion flange. I use a shop rag as a "tourniquet" around the flange neck to get a good tooth impression in the marking compound. Rotate the ring gear with a box-end wrench applied to previously torqued bolts. If you trial fit with good used bearings (their bores sanded out to a finger-press fit), you'll be very close to the final fit and preloads. If anything, there will be only minor shim adjustment at the end. Keep in mind that the high final pinion nut torque will thoroughly crush the shim stack, and this could change both the pinion depth and the bearing preload. Note: As an additional point, I do not trial fit with a new pinion nut. I save the new pinion nut for what I'm sure will be the last fit-up and torque setting. You can even grind the outer pinch thread off the old nut for trial fitting. This will allow quick tightening and removal during the testing. For final tightening, install the new pinion nut with Loctite on the threads for insurance and additional sealing. The Dana 35 rear can also be trial fitted. Use the old crush sleeve for trial testing; you're initially just trying to seat the good used trial fit bearings and flatten the shims enough for an accurate pinion depth reading and approximate bearing preload setting. Final pinion nut torque is critical at both the Dana 30 and Dana 35 axles; you will need a new crush sleeve at the rear pinion for final preload setting once you're confident you have the correct pinion depth and have installed the new bearings. Be very careful not to over-tighten the bearing preload on the 35, or you will be installing another new crush sleeve. If crushed too much, the sleeve must be replace. You cannot back off the nut and leave a lighter torque setting against the sleeve. The nut may come loose in service. Final pinion nut installation requires a new pinion nut with Loctite on the threads. The tooth contact pattern method is not what you want to hear, but it can ultimately get you the results you want. Given that you're essentially starting from scratch (there's no magic starting shim stack), the contact pattern will be your only assurance that you've got the pinion depth right. Pinion bearing preload is the easier part, though many prefer the crush sleeve to a shim stack preload setting. Trial bearings will make all of this a lot easier. If your trial bearings have minimal wear, the new bearings will be a very close match. You'll be able to press new bearings in place without having to remove them off for additional shim work. In my experience, quality bearings with close tolerance standards almost always match or interchange. A good original bearing should be a very close fit to the new bearing, especially for shimming purposes. Use your intuition here; compensate slightly for any bearing wear. Moses
  11. Mr Rex...If my hunch is correct, your clutch spline count should be 23, not 24, making this a Ford passenger car application. With the information you just provided, my prime guess is a 1958-60 Ford passenger car with the 292 V-8. In this era, you have the larger FE engines coming on line, and the beefier T-85 3-speed was the manual transmission choice for those higher horsepower/torque applications. The 292 in this year range is a lower compression 2-barrel "economy" or base V-8 engine, and Ford trucks use this same Y-block V-8 in F-100 and F-250 models through 1964. The tooth count between the input/main drive gear and the cluster gear should be 20-30 teeth, 18-33 teeth or 18-30 teeth. Knowing the input and cluster gear tooth count narrows down the source further. If you can provide the tooth count on the drive gear and its matching tooth count on the cluster/counter gear, I can further pinpoint this application...Definitely Ford and distinctly passenger car, I'm betting on the 20-30T, which would confirm a 1958-60 T-86 overdrive Ford passenger car with a 292 Y-block V-8 under the hood and an 11" clutch. If so, the length on the input gear should be 8-1/8", which is Ford OEM main drive gear part #B8A-7017F. The input shaft spline diameter should be one-inch. Note: I had difficulty finding a 26-spline count output, please confirm the output spline count. I'll research further. For Jeep, AMC, Studebaker and other Ford applications, the T-86 input/main drive gear must be the correct length for the bellhousing, clutch and crankshaft pilot. A quick check finds these other applications have much different input shaft lengths, diameters and spline counts. Otherwise, the input gear on this transmission must be changed. The front bearing retainer must also match the diameter for the input gear, the bellhousing design and the release arm. Also, the replacement input gear must have the same tooth count, or it will not match up with the cluster gear now in this transmission. There are also different tooth cuts on the main drive gears for various T-86 applications, especially Jeep: left or right tooth angles, which means the cluster and other gears must match up. Clearly, all T-86 overdrive transmissions are not the same. For a direct fit without any modifications or gear swapping, the buyer for this transmission will likely be a Ford passenger car owner with a Y-block V-8. For any other application, a close comparison will determine whether it is worth swapping out the gears or not. Clutch splines are the least issue, it's easy to find the right diameter clutch disk and match the spline counts. Let's nail down this application. Please confirm the input and output spline counts and provide a snapshot of the main case casting number. Let's evaluate those blemishes on the 1st/reverse slider gear to see if that's a real issue and consider ways to address it. If you know what transmission you have, and its needs, it will be easier to find the right, satisfied buyer. You'll be able to advertise the transmission accurately and provide a restorer with just what he wants. Added value for you as the seller. Glad to help here... Moses
  12. You're welcome...Good troubleshooting there! A lot of work in changing out a harness or even splicing in a section, but if that's the cure, well worth it. Glad you stayed away from the fuel tank at this point. Normal fuel pressure and enough volume are all the engine needs to run right...This emphasizes the importance of the camshaft position sensor and its signals.
  13. Nucking Futs...Yea, now you're getting somewhere with the EGR! Does this system use a vehicle speed sensor? The Jeep MPI conversion kit does, as the Jeep PCM relies on the vehicle speed signal for some EFI functions. Does Howell use a VSS on the TBI conversion? I'm not aware of it. Check for a possible vacuum leak, including a leak between the intake manifold and cylinder head. That gasket or your TBI-to-intake manifold could be involved. Going down the road does affect the underhood atmospheric pressure. Is the MAP sensor okay? This idle speed problem could also be unrelated to the TBI system. You have the MSD ignition enhancement. Does this adjust spark timing in any way or does it just enhance spark output? If you're still using the OEM Motorcraft distributor, make sure your distributor vacuum canister is fed ported vacuum and not manifold vacuum. Also make sure that the distributor's mechanical advance mechanism is not sticking, making it unable to smoothly and accurately retard spark timing as the engine speed drops. A sticky centrifugal advance would hold the idle high. Take your timing light and watch the spark timing as the engine holds the higher rpm at an idle. Watch the timing as the speed drops off...You could have a sticky centrifugal spark advance mechanism in the distributor, or the vacuum source for the vacuum advance might be hooked up to manifold vacuum instead of ported. Note: On your TBI conversion system, you can bypass the maze of 4.2L OEM spark advance/retard solenoids activated by the factory ECU. (You can leave these devices on the chassis, but they no longer serve a purpose with the Howell TBI installed.) Simply run a vacuum hose directly from the TBI ported vacuum to the distributor's vacuum canister...Check with a gauge to confirm that the vacuum source is ported and not manifold vacuum. (Ported vacuum should read close to zero in/hg with the throttle valve closed.) The TBI unit has a ported vacuum port and possibly a manifold vacuum source. Cap off the manifold vacuum source. There is a CTO (a coolant temperature vacuum interrupter switch) in the distributor's vacuum circuit. This is also used for the EGR vacuum circuit. This prevents vacuum spark advance and EGR operation until the engine reaches normal operating temperature. I'm not sure whether Howell requires this to meet emissions standards. If not, you can run a direct hose from the TBI ported vacuum source to the distributor's vacuum canister or run this hose via the CTO. Be aware that EGR is also opened with ported vacuum and not manifold vacuum. If hooked to manifold vacuum, the EGR would remain open whenever the engine is running. The EGR valve is not supposed to open at a close throttle position or when ported vacuum drops off. Make sure your EGR valve has a ported vacuum source. Moses
  14. WeeePiggy...Not sure where fc24151 went with his troubleshooting and a solution. I like your idea of checking fuel pressure, also check the fuel volume flow while you're cranking the engine and actually experiencing this inability to start. The pump and its pickup sock have two functions: sufficient fuel pressure and sustained fuel flow at the right volume. As a consideration, I'll share a fuel pressure bleed-off issue that occurs with my XJ Cherokee 4.0L. Cranking takes longer if I simply start cranking the engine over. If, instead, I turn on the key for just a few seconds to pick up fuel prime at the rail, the engine will start instantly. This suggests a fuel pressure bleed-off issue when the vehicle sets. Quick restarts are no problem, the issue occurs only when the vehicle sets for a period of time. To bleed off, there must be an issue at the pressure regulator on my 1999 Jeep. Simply priming the system creates a quicker start. Try this key on before cranking trick with your Tracker system; see if that makes any difference in its starting ability. See whether you have a fuel pressure bleed-off problem at the fuel pressure regulator. I would also check the engine's compression and the valve timing. If the valve timing is retarding, you will have the fast spin-over without starting. A worn timing chain or stretched timing belt can create this symptom. So can a belt that's a tooth off or "jumped". Have you changed the timing belt? Is there a camshaft position sensor on your engine, and if so, is it throwing a code? Moses
  15. Sabueso...The return line can be a problem for fuel systems. If clogged it will raise the fuel pressure by acting like a regulator. The TBI/EFI pressure regulator can be functioning properly, but if the fuel return line is clogged, the fuel pressure can soar as high as the actual fuel pump pressure. Whether you have this problem or not, you should make sure the return is unclogged and unrestricted. Your list of troubleshooting steps sounds good! Cleaning ECU and other contacts can't hurt and could help. A TBI spray pattern is useful as a diagnostic step. In this PDF you will find the MAT readings by temperature. If you have a temp infrared tester and the ohmmeter, you can pinpoint the function. I also included some additional sensor and ECU connector pinout information for your "Model 81" Jeep YJ Wrangler 2.5L. This will help with diagnostics. Note the importance of chassis grounds with your 2.5L TBI system, many of the sensors and devices complete the ground at the ECU: Jeep YJ 2.5L TBI Sensors and Pinout.pdf This should provide some ideas and tools for troubleshooting... Moses